Outbreak of Fatal Childhood Lead Poisoning Related to Artisanal Gold Mining in Northwestern Nigeria, 2010.

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10144/220352
Title:
Outbreak of Fatal Childhood Lead Poisoning Related to Artisanal Gold Mining in Northwestern Nigeria, 2010.
Authors:
Dooyema, Carrie A; Neri, Antonio; Lo, Yi-Chun; Durant, James; Dargan, Paul I; Swarthout, Todd; Biya, Oladayo; Gidado, Saheed O; Haladu, Suleiman; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nguku, Patrick M; Akpan, Henry; Idris, Sa'ad; Bashir, Abdullahi M; Brown, Mary Jean
Journal:
Environmental Health Perspectives
Abstract:
Background: In May 2010, a team of national and international organizations was assembled to investigate children's deaths due to lead poisoning in villages in northwestern Nigeria. Objectives: To determine the cause of the childhood lead poisoning outbreak, investigate risk factors for child mortality, and identify children aged <5 years in need of emergency chelation therapy for lead poisoning. Methods: We administered a cross-sectional, door-to-door questionnaire in two affected villages, collected blood from children aged 2-59 months, and soil samples from family compounds. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed with survey, blood-lead, and environmental data. Multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to determine risk factors for childhood mortality. Results: We surveyed 119 family compounds. One hundred eighteen of 463 (25%) children aged <5 years had died in the last year. We tested 59% (204/345) of children, aged <5 years, and all were lead poisoned (≥10 µg/dL); 97% (198/204) of children had blood-lead levels ≥45 µg/dL, the threshold for initiating chelation therapy. Gold ore was processed inside two-thirds of the family compounds surveyed. In multivariate modeling significant risk factors for death in the previous year from suspected lead poisoning included: the child's age, the mother performing ore-processing activities, community well as primary water source, and the soil-lead concentration in the compound. Conclusion: The high levels of environmental contamination, percentage of children aged <5 years with elevated blood-lead levels (97%, >45 µg/dL), and incidence of convulsions among children prior to death (82%) suggest that most of the recent childhood deaths in the two surveyed villages were caused by acute lead poisoning from gold ore-processing activities. Control measures included environmental remediation, chelation therapy, public health education, and control of mining activities.
Affiliation:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Environmental, Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; CDC, Epidemic Intelligence Service Atlanta, Georgia, USA; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Atlanta, Georgia, USA; Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King’s Health Partners, London, UK; Médecins Sans Frontières, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria; CDC, Abuja, Nigeria; Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria; Zamfara State Ministry of Health, Gusau, Nigeria
Publisher:
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Issue Date:
20-Dec-2011
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10144/220352
DOI:
10.1289/ehp.1103965
PubMed ID:
22186192
Additional Links:
http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/info:doi/10.1289/ehp.1103965
Type:
Article
Language:
en
ISSN:
1552-9924
Appears in Collections:
Environmental Health

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorDooyema, Carrie Aen
dc.contributor.authorNeri, Antonioen
dc.contributor.authorLo, Yi-Chunen
dc.contributor.authorDurant, Jamesen
dc.contributor.authorDargan, Paul Ien
dc.contributor.authorSwarthout, Todden
dc.contributor.authorBiya, Oladayoen
dc.contributor.authorGidado, Saheed Oen
dc.contributor.authorHaladu, Suleimanen
dc.contributor.authorSani-Gwarzo, Nasiren
dc.contributor.authorNguku, Patrick Men
dc.contributor.authorAkpan, Henryen
dc.contributor.authorIdris, Sa'aden
dc.contributor.authorBashir, Abdullahi Men
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Mary Jeanen
dc.date.accessioned2012-04-24T16:37:18Z-
dc.date.available2012-04-24T16:37:18Z-
dc.date.issued2011-12-20-
dc.identifier.citationEnviron Health Perspect 2011; Published ahead of printen
dc.identifier.issn1552-9924-
dc.identifier.pmid22186192-
dc.identifier.doi10.1289/ehp.1103965-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10144/220352-
dc.description.abstractBackground: In May 2010, a team of national and international organizations was assembled to investigate children's deaths due to lead poisoning in villages in northwestern Nigeria. Objectives: To determine the cause of the childhood lead poisoning outbreak, investigate risk factors for child mortality, and identify children aged <5 years in need of emergency chelation therapy for lead poisoning. Methods: We administered a cross-sectional, door-to-door questionnaire in two affected villages, collected blood from children aged 2-59 months, and soil samples from family compounds. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed with survey, blood-lead, and environmental data. Multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to determine risk factors for childhood mortality. Results: We surveyed 119 family compounds. One hundred eighteen of 463 (25%) children aged <5 years had died in the last year. We tested 59% (204/345) of children, aged <5 years, and all were lead poisoned (≥10 µg/dL); 97% (198/204) of children had blood-lead levels ≥45 µg/dL, the threshold for initiating chelation therapy. Gold ore was processed inside two-thirds of the family compounds surveyed. In multivariate modeling significant risk factors for death in the previous year from suspected lead poisoning included: the child's age, the mother performing ore-processing activities, community well as primary water source, and the soil-lead concentration in the compound. Conclusion: The high levels of environmental contamination, percentage of children aged <5 years with elevated blood-lead levels (97%, >45 µg/dL), and incidence of convulsions among children prior to death (82%) suggest that most of the recent childhood deaths in the two surveyed villages were caused by acute lead poisoning from gold ore-processing activities. Control measures included environmental remediation, chelation therapy, public health education, and control of mining activities.en
dc.languageENG-
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciencesen
dc.relation.urlhttp://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/info:doi/10.1289/ehp.1103965en
dc.rightsPublished by National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Archived on this site by Open Access permissionen
dc.subject.meshLead poisoningen
dc.subject.meshPediatricsen
dc.titleOutbreak of Fatal Childhood Lead Poisoning Related to Artisanal Gold Mining in Northwestern Nigeria, 2010.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Environmental, Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; CDC, Epidemic Intelligence Service Atlanta, Georgia, USA; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Atlanta, Georgia, USA; Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King’s Health Partners, London, UK; Médecins Sans Frontières, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria; CDC, Abuja, Nigeria; Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria; Zamfara State Ministry of Health, Gusau, Nigeriaen
dc.identifier.journalEnvironmental Health Perspectivesen

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