Browsing 1 Published Research and Commentary by Authors
Case management of a multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 outbreak in a crisis context in Sierra Leone, 1999-2000.Guerin, P J; Brasher, C; Baron, E; Mic, D; Grimont, F; Ryan, M; Aavitsland, P; Legros, D; Epicentre, 8 rue Saint Sabin, 75011 Paris, France. firstname.lastname@example.org (Elsevier, 2004-11)From December 1999 to the end of February 2000, 4218 cases of dysentery were reported in Kenema district, southeastern Sierra Leone, by a Médecins Sans Frontières team operating in this region. Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 was isolated from the early cases. The overall attack rate was 7.5% but higher among children under 5 years (11.2%) compared to the rest of the population (6.8%) (RR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.8). The case fatality ratio was 3.1%, and higher for children under 5 years (6.1% vs. 2.1%) (RR = 2.9; 95% CI 2.1-4.1). A case management strategy based on stratification of affected cases was chosen in this resource-poor setting. Patients considered at higher risk of death were treated with a 5 day ciprofloxacin regimen in isolation centres. Five hundred and eighty-three cases were treated with a case fatality ratio of 0.9%. Patients who did not have signs of severity when seen by health workers were given hygiene advice and oral rehydration salts. This strategy was effective in this complex emergency.
Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 in west Africa: intervention strategy for an outbreak in Sierra Leone.Guerin, P J; Brasher, C; Baron, E; Mic, D; Grimont, F; Ryan, M; Aavitsland, P; Legros, D; Division of Infectious Disease Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. email@example.com (Elsevier, 2003-08-30)In November 1999, a Médecins Sans Frontières team based in the southeastern part of Sierra Leone reported an increased number of cases of bloody diarrhoea. Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (Sd1) was isolated in the early cases. A total of 4218 cases of dysentery were reported in Kenema district from December, 1999, to March, 2000. The overall attack rate was 7.5%. The attack rate was higher among children younger than 5 years than in the rest of the population (11.2% vs 6.8%; relative risk=1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.8). The case fatality was 3.1%, also higher for children younger than 5 years (6.1% vs 2.1%; relative risk=2.9; 95% CI 2.1-4.1]). Among 583 patients regarded at increased risk of death who were treated with ciprofloxacin in isolation centres, case fatality was 0.9%. A 5-day ciprofloxacin regimen, targeted to the most severe cases of bloody diarrhoea, was highly effective. This is the first time a large outbreak caused by Sd1 has been reported in west Africa.