Browsing 1 Published Research and Commentary by Authors
Drug-resistant tuberculosis: time for visionary political leadershipAbubakar, I; Zignol, M; Falzon, D; Raviglione, M; Ditiu, L; Masham, S; Adetifa, I; Ford, N; Cox, H; Lawn, S D; et al. (Elsevier, 2013-03-24)Two decades ago, WHO declared tuberculosis a global emergency, and invested in the highly cost-effective directly observed treatment short-course programme to control the epidemic. At that time, most strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were susceptible to first-line tuberculosis drugs, and drug resistance was not a major issue. However, in 2013, tuberculosis remains a major public health concern worldwide, with prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis rising. WHO estimates roughly 630 000 cases of MDR tuberculosis worldwide, with great variation in the frequency of MDR tuberculosis between countries. In the past 8 years, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis has emerged, and has been reported in 84 countries, heralding the possibility of virtually untreatable tuberculosis. Increased population movement, the continuing HIV pandemic, and the rise in MDR tuberculosis pose formidable challenges to the global control of tuberculosis. We provide an overview of the global burden of drug-resistant disease; discuss the social, health service, management, and control issues that fuel and sustain the epidemic; and suggest specific recommendations for important next steps. Visionary political leadership is needed to curb the rise of MDR and XDR tuberculosis worldwide, through sustained funding and the implementation of global and regional action plans.
Towards Early Inclusion of Children in Tuberculosis Drugs Trials: A Consensus StatementNachman, S; Ahmed, A; Amanullah, F; Becerra, M C; Botgros, R; Brigden, G; Browning, R; Gardiner, E; Hafner, R; Hesseling, A; et al. (Elsevier, 2015-06)Children younger than 18 years account for a substantial proportion of patients with tuberculosis worldwide. Available treatments for paediatric drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis, albeit generally effective, are hampered by high pill burden, long duration of treatment, coexistent toxic effects, and an overall scarcity of suitable child-friendly formulations. Several new drugs and regimens with promising activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains have entered clinical development and are either in various phases of clinical investigation or have received marketing authorisation for adults; however, none have data on their use in children. This consensus statement, generated from an international panel of opinion leaders on childhood tuberculosis and incorporating reviews of published literature from January, 2004, to May, 2014, addressed four key questions: what drugs or regimens should be prioritised for clinical trials in children? Which populations of children are high priorities for study? When can phase 1 or 2 studies be initiated in children? What are the relevant elements of clinical trial design? The consensus panel found that children can be included in studies at the early phases of drug development and should be an integral part of the clinical development plan, rather than studied after regulatory approval in adults is obtained.