• High incidence of intended partner pregnancy among men living with HIV in rural Uganda: Implications for safer conception services.

      Kaida, A; Kabakyenga, J; Bwana, M; Bajunirwe, F; Mayindike, W; Bennett, K; Kembabazi, A; Haberer, JE; Boum, Y; Martin, JN; et al. (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2019-04-15)
      Many men with HIV express fertility intentions and nearly half have HIV-uninfected sexual partners. We measured partner pregnancy among a cohort of men accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda. Self-reported partner pregnancy incidence and bloodwork (CD4, HIV-RNA) were collected quarterly. Interviewer-administered questionnaires assessed men's sexual and reproductive health annually and repeated at time of reported pregnancy (2011-2015). We measured partner pregnancy incidence overall, by pregnancy intention, and by reported partner HIV-serostatus. We assessed viral suppression (≤400 copies/mL) during the peri-conception period. Cox proportional hazard regression with repeated events identified predictors of partner pregnancy. Among 189 men, baseline median age was 39.9 years [IQR:34.7,47.0], years on ART was 3.9 [IQR:0.0,5.1], and 51% were virally suppressed. Over 530.2 person-years of follow-up, 63 men reported 85 partner pregnancies (incidence=16.0/100 person-years); 45% with HIV-serodifferent partners. By three years of follow-up, 30% of men reported a partner pregnancy, with no difference by partner HIV-serostatus (p=0.75). 69% of pregnancies were intended, 18% wanted but mis-timed, and 8% unwanted. 78% of men were virally suppressed prior to pregnancy report. Men who were younger (aHR:0.94/year;95%CI:0.89-0.99), had incomplete primary education (aHR:2.95;95%CI:1.36-6.40), and reported fertility desires (aHR:2.25;95%CI:1.04-4.85) had higher probability of partner pregnancy. A high incidence of intended partner pregnancy highlights the need to address men's reproductive goals within HIV care. Nearly half of pregnancy partners were at-risk for HIV and one-quarter of men were not virally suppressed during peri-conception. Safer conception care provides opportunity to support men's health and reproductive goals, while preventing HIV transmission to women and infants.
    • Risk Factors for Vaginal Colonization and Relationship between Bacterial Vaginal Colonization and In-Hospital Outcomes in Women with Obstructed Labor in a Ugandan Regional Referral Hospital

      Ngonzi, J; Bebell, LM; Bazira, J; Fajardo, Y; Nyehangane, D; Boum, Y; Nanjebe, D; Boatin, A; Kabakyenga, J; Jacquemyn, Y; et al. (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2018-09-20)
      Introduction . The proportion of women with severe maternal morbidity from obstructed labor is between 2 and 12% in resource-limited settings. Maternal vaginal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), Escherichia coli , and Enterococcus spp. is associated with maternal and neonatal morbidity. It is unknown if vaginal colonization with these organisms in obstructed labor women is associated with poor outcomes. Objectives . To determine whether vaginal colonization with GBS, E. coli , or Enterococcus is associated with increased morbidity among women with obstructed labor and to determine the risk factors for colonization and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Methods . We screened all women presenting in labor to Uganda’s Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital maternity ward from April to October 2015 for obstructed labor. Those meeting criteria had vaginal swabs collected prior to Cesarean delivery and surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Swabs were inoculated onto sterile media for routine bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results . Overall, 2,168 women were screened and 276 (13%) women met criteria for obstructed labor. Vaginal swabs were collected from 272 women (99%), and 170 (64%) were colonized with a potential pathogen: 49% with E. coli , 5% with GBS, and 8% with Enterococcus . There was no difference in maternal and fetal clinical outcomes between those colonized and not colonized. The number of hours in labor was a significant independent risk factor for vaginal colonization (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.03, P = 0.04 ). Overall, 38% of GBS was resistant to penicillin; 61% of E. coli was resistant to ampicillin, 4% to gentamicin, and 5% to ceftriaxone and cefepime. All enterococci were ampicillin and vancomycin susceptible. Conclusion . There was no difference in maternal or neonatal morbidity between women with vaginal colonization with E. coli , GBS, and Enterococcus and those who were not colonized. Duration of labor was associated with increased risk of vaginal colonization in women with obstructed labor.