• Assessing the quality of data aggregated by antiretroviral treatment clinics in Malawi.

      Makombe, S D; Hochgesang, M; Jahn, A; Tweya, H; Hedt, B; Chuka, S; Yu, J K L; Aberle-Grasse, J; Pasulani, O; Bailey, C; et al. (2008-04)
      PROBLEM: As national antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes scale-up, it is essential that information is complete, timely and accurate for site monitoring and national planning. The accuracy and completeness of reports independently compiled by ART facilities, however, is often not known. APPROACH: This study assessed the quality of quarterly aggregate summary data for April to June 2006 compiled and reported by ART facilities ("site report") as compared to the "gold standard" facility summary data compiled independently by the Ministry of Health supervision team ("supervision report"). Completeness and accuracy of key case registration and outcome variables were compared. Data were considered inaccurate if variables from the site reports were missing or differed by more than 5% from the supervision reports. Additionally, we compared the national summaries obtained from the two data sources. LOCAL SETTING: Monitoring and evaluation of Malawi's national ART programme is based on WHO's recommended tools for ART monitoring. It includes one master card for each ART patient and one patient register at each ART facility. Each quarter, sites complete cumulative cohort analyses and teams from the Ministry of Health conduct supervisory visits to all public sector ART sites to ensure the quality of reported data. RELEVANT CHANGES: Most sites had complete case registration and outcome data; however many sites did not report accurate data for several critical data fields, including reason for starting, outcome and regimen. The national summary using the site reports resulted in a 12% undercount in the national total number of persons on first-line treatment. Several facility-level characteristics were associated with data quality. LESSONS LEARNED: While many sites are able to generate complete data summaries, the accuracy of facility reports is not yet adequate for national monitoring. The Ministry of Health and its partners should continue to identify and support interventions such as supportive supervision to build sites' capacity to maintain and compile quality data to ensure that accurate information is available for site monitoring and national planning.
    • Assessment of Community Led Total Sanitation Uptake in Rural Kenya

      Ogendo, KN; Kihara, AB; Kosgey, RJ; Tweya, H; Kizito, W; Murkomen, B; Ogutu, O (African Journals Online, 2017-05-29)
    • An Assessment of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Practices and Quality of Routinely Collected Data in Machakos County Kenya

      Kavoo, DM; Ali, SH; Kihara, AB; Kosgei, RJ; Tweya, H; Kizito, W; Omondi, O; Tauta, CN (African Journals Online, 2016-10)
    • Body and mind: retention in antiretroviral treatment care is improved by mental health training of care providers in Ethiopia

      Berheto, TM; Hinderaker, SG; Senkoro, M; Tweya, H; Deressa, T; Getaneh, Y; Gezahegn, G (BioMed Central, 2018-07-20)
      Ethiopia has achieved a high coverage of antiretroviral treatment (ART), but maintaining lifelong care is still a great challenge. Mental illnesses often co-exist with HIV/AIDS and may compromise the retention on ART. In order to improve prolonged retention in ART care, basic training in mental health care was introduced for ART providers, but this hasn't been evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to examine if this training has improved patient retention in care.
    • Burden of Soil Transmitted Helminthiases in Primary School Children in Migori County, Kenya

      Ng'ang'a, A; Matendechero, S; Kariuki, L; Omondi, W; Makworo, N; Owiti, P; Kizito, W; Tweya, H; Edwards, JK; Takarinda, KC; et al. (African Journals Online, 2016-10)
    • Changing distribution and abundance of the malaria vector Anopheles merus in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

      Mbokazi, F; Coetzee, M; Brooke, B; Govere, J; Reid, A; Owiti, P; Kosgei, R; Zhou, S; Magagula, R; Kok, G; et al. (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2018-04-25)
      Background: The malaria vector Anopheles merus occurs in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. As its contribution to malaria transmission in South Africa has yet to be ascertained, an intensification of surveillance is necessary to provide baseline information on this species. The aim of this study was therefore to map An. merus breeding sites in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province and to assess qualitative trends in the distribution and relative abundance of this species over a 9-year period. Methods: The study was carried out during the period 2005-2014 in the four high-risk municipalities of Ehlanzeni District. Fifty-two breeding sites were chosen from all water bodies that produced anopheline mosquitoes. The study data were extracted from historical entomological records that are captured monthly. Results: Of the 15 058 Anopheles mosquitoes collected, 64% were An. merus. The abundance and distribution of An. merus increased throughout the four municipalities in Ehlanzeni District during the study period. Conclusion: The expanded distribution and increased abundance of An. merus in the Ehlanzeni District may contribute significantly to locally acquired malaria in Mpumalanga Province, likely necessitating the incorporation of additional vector control methods specifically directed against populations of this species.
    • Changing prevalence and factors associated with female genital mutilation in Ethiopia: Data from the 2000, 2005 and 2016 national demographic health surveys.

      Azeze, GA; Williams, A; Tweya, H; Obsa, MS; Mokonnon, TM; Kanche, ZZ; Fite, RO; Harries, AD (Public Library of Sciences, 2020-09-03)
      Setting: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional surgical modification of the female genitalia comprising all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural or nontherapeutic reasons. It can be harmful and violates girls' and women's human rights. FGM is a worldwide problem but mainly practiced in Africa. FGM is still widely practiced in Ethiopia despite being made a criminal offence in 2004. Objective: Using data from three Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys (EDHS) conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2016 the objective was to assess changes in prevalence of FGM and associated factors among women of reproductive age and their daughters. Methods: EDHS datasets for the three surveys included data on FGM prevalence and socio-demographic factors. After weighting, the data were analysed using frequencies, proportions and the chi square test for trend. Categorical variables associated with FGM in 2016 were compared using OpenEpi and presented as prevalence ratios (Pr) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Levels of significance were set at 5% (P<0.05). Results: There was overall decline in FGM prevalence (from 79.9% to 74.3% to 65.2%, P<0.001), especially in younger women aged 15-19 years, and in the proportion of women who believed that the practice should continue (from 59.7% to 28.3% to 17.5%, P<0.001). There was also a decreasing trend of FGM in the daughters of the mothers who were interviewed, with prevalence significantly lower in mothers who had not themselves undergone FGM. Most (88.3%) women with FGM had the surgery as a child with the procedure mainly performed by a traditional circumciser (87.3%). Factors associated with higher FGM prevalence and lack of progress over the sixteen years included living in certain regions, especially Somali where FGM prevalence remained consistently >95%, lack of school education, coming from rural areas and living in less wealthy households. Conclusion: Although progress has been slow, the prevalence of FGM in Ethiopia has declined over time. Recommendations to quicken the trajectory of decline targeting integrated interventions to high prevalence areas focusing on mothers, fathers, youngsters, religious leaders and schools and ensuring that all girls receive some form of education.
    • Compliance to follow up and adherence to medication in hypertensive patients in an urban informal settlement in Kenya: comparison of three models of care

      Kuria, N; Reid, A; Owiti, P; Tweya, H; Kibet, CK; Mbau, L; Manzi, M; Murunga, V; Namusonge, T; Kibachio, J (Wiley-Blackwell, 2018-05-19)
      To determine and compare, among three models of care, compliance to scheduled clinic appointments and adherence to anti-hypertensive medication of patients in an informal settlement of Kibera, Kenya.
    • Did the 2014 Ebola Outbreak in Liberia Affect HIV Testing, Linkage to Care and ART Initiation?

      Jacobs, G; Bhat, P; Owiti, P; Edwards, J; Tweya, H; Najjemba, R (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2017-06-21)
      Setting: Health facilities providing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, care and treatment in Liberia. Objective: To evaluate individuals aged ⩾15 years who were tested, diagnosed and enrolled into HIV care before (2013), during (2014) and after the Ebola outbreak (2015). Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Results: A median of 6930 individuals aged ⩾15 years per county were tested for HIV before the Ebola outbreak; this number declined by 35% (2444/6930) during the outbreak. HIV positivity remained similar before (7028/207 314, 3.4%) and during the outbreak (4146/121 592, 3.5%). During Ebola, HIV testing declined more in highly affected counties (68 035/127 468, 47%) than in counties that were less affected (16 444/23 955, 31%, P < 0.001). Compared to the pre-Ebola period, HIV testing in less-affected counties recovered more quickly during the post-outbreak period, with a 19% increase in testing, while medium and highly affected counties remained at respectively 38% and 48% below pre-outbreak levels. Enrolment for HIV care increased during and after the outbreak compared to the pre-Ebola period. Conclusion: HIV testing and diagnosis were significantly limited during the Ebola outbreak, with the most severe effects occurring in highly affected counties. However, enrolment for HIV care and treatment were resilient throughout the outbreak. Pro-active measures are needed to sustain HIV testing rates in future epidemics.
    • Did the Ebola Outbreak Disrupt Immunisation Services? A Case Study from Liberia

      Wesseh, C; Najjemba, R; Edwards, J; Owiti, P; Tweya, H; Bhat, P (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2017-06-21)
      Setting: All health facilities providing routine immunisation services in Liberia. Objective: To compare the number of routine facility-based and outreach immunisations and measles cases before, during and after the Ebola outbreak. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Results: Immunisation coverage for fully immunised children before the Ebola outbreak was 73%. Immunisation coverage for all antigens declined by half compared to baseline during the outbreak. These findings were similar in facility-based and outreach immunisations. During the outbreak, the proportion of fully immunised children dropped by respectively 58%, 33% and 39% in the most, moderately and least Ebola-affected counties. Immunisation rate of recovery in the post-Ebola period was respectively 82%, 21% and 9% in the most, moderately and least affected counties compared to the Ebola-outbreak period. Outreach immunisation recovered slowly compared to facility-based immunisation. The mean number of measles cases reported per month was 12 pre-Ebola, 16 Ebola and 60 post-Ebola. Conclusion: This study provides insights into the possible impact of an Ebola outbreak on countrywide immunisation. The outbreak weakened a struggling national immunisation programme, and post-outbreak recovery took significant time, which likely contributed to the measles epidemic. Recommendations for the improvement of immunisation services that could limit further preventable epidemics in Liberia and similar contexts at risk for Ebola are provided.
    • Effects of real-time electronic data entry on HIV programme data quality in Lusaka, Zambia

      Moomba, K; Williams, A; Savory, T; Lumpa, M; Chilembo, P; Tweya, H; Harries, AD; Herce, M (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2020-03-21)
      Setting: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics in five hospitals and five health centres in Lusaka, Zambia, which transitioned from daily entry of paper-based data records to an electronic medical record (EMR) system by dedicated data staff (Electronic-Last) to direct real-time data entry into the EMR by frontline health workers (Electronic-First). Objective: To compare completeness and accuracy of key HIV-related variables before and after transition of data entry from Electronic-Last to Electronic-First. Design: Comparative cross-sectional study using existing secondary data. Results: Registration data (e.g., date of birth) was 100% complete and pharmacy data (e.g., antiretroviral therapy regimen) was 90% complete under both approaches. Completeness of anthropometric and vital sign data was 75% across all facilities under Electronic-Last, and this worsened after Electronic-First. Completeness of TB screening and World Health Organization clinical staging data was also 75%, but improved with Electronic-First. Data entry errors for registration and clinical consultations decreased under Electronic-First, but errors increased for all anthropometric and vital sign variables. Patterns were similar in hospitals and health centres. Conclusion: With the notable exception of clinical consultation data, data completeness and accuracy did not improve after transitioning from Electronic-Last to Electronic-First. For anthropometric and vital sign variables, completeness and accuracy decreased. Quality improvement interventions are needed to improve Electronic-First implementation.
    • Ending the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Low- and Middle-Income Countries by 2030: Is It Possible?

      Harries, AD; Suthar, A; Takarinda, KC; Tweya, H; Kyaw, NTT; Tayler-Smith, K; Zachariah, R (2016-09)
      The international community has committed to ending the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical infections by 2030, and this bold stance deserves universal support. In this paper, we discuss whether this ambitious goal is achievable for HIV/AIDS and what is needed to further accelerate progress. The joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets and the related strategy are built upon currently available health technologies that can diagnose HIV infection and suppress viral replication in all people with HIV. Nonetheless, there is much work to be done in ensuring equitable access to these HIV services for key populations and those who remain outside the rims of the traditional health services. Identifying a cure and a preventive vaccine would further help accelerate progress in ending the epidemic. Other disease control programmes could learn from the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
    • A national survey of the impact of rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy on health-care workers in Malawi: effects on human resources and survival.

      Makombe, S D; Jahn, A; Tweya, H; Chuka, S; Yu, J K L; Hochgesang, M; Aberle-Grasse, J; Pasulani, O; Schouten, E J; Kamoto, K; et al. (WHO, 2007-11)
      OBJECTIVE: To assess the human resources impact of Malawis rapidly growing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme and balance this against the survival benefit of health-care workers who have accessed ART themselves. METHODS: We conducted a national cross-sectional survey of the human resource allocation in all public-sector health facilities providing ART in mid-2006. We also undertook a survival analysis of health-care workers who had accessed ART in public and private facilities by 30 June 2006, using data from the national ART monitoring and evaluation system. FINDINGS: By 30 June 2006, 59 581 patients had accessed ART from 95 public and 28 private facilities. The public sites provided ART services on 2.4 days per week on average, requiring 7% of the clinician workforce, 3% of the nursing workforce and 24% of the ward clerk workforce available at the facilities. We identified 1024 health-care workers in the national ART-patient cohort (2% of all ART patients). The probabilities for survival on ART at 6 months, 12 months and 18 months were 85%, 81% and 78%, respectively. An estimated 250 health-care workers lives were saved 12 months after ART initiation. Their combined work-time of more than 1000 staff-days per week was equivalent to the human resources required to provide ART at the national level. CONCLUSION: A large number of ART patients in Malawi are managed by a small proportion of the health-care workforce. Many health-care workers have accessed ART with good treatment outcomes. Currently, staffing required for ART balances against health-care workers lives saved through treatment, although this may change in the future.
    • Neglected tropical diseases and the sustainable development goals: an urgent call for action from the front line

      Addisu, A; Adriaensen, W; Balew, A; Asfaw, M; Diro, E; Garba Djirmay, A; Gebree, D; Seid, G; Begashaw, H; Harries, AD; et al. (BMJ, 2019-02-08)
    • Retention and sustained viral suppression in HIV patients transferred to community refill centres in Kinshasa, DRC

      Moudachirou, R; van Cutsem, G; Chuy, RI; Tweya, H; Senkoro, M; Mabhala, M; Zolfo, M (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2020-03-21)
      Setting: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières set up decentralised community antiretroviral therapy (ART) refill centres ("poste de distribution communautaire", PODI) for the follow-up of stable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Objective: To assess retention in care and sustained viral suppression after transfer to three main PODI in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (PODI Barumbu/Central, PODI Binza Ozone/West and PODI Masina I/East). Design: Retrospective cohort study using routine programme data for adult HIV patients transferred from Kabinda Hospital to PODIs between January 2015 and June 2017. Results: A total of 337 patients were transferred to PODIs: 306 (91%) were on ART for at least 12 months; 118 (39%) had a routine "12-month" viral load (VL) done, 93% (n = 110) of whom had a suppressed VL <1000 copies/ml. Median time from enrolment into PODI to 12-month routine VL was 14.6 months (IQR 12.2-20.8). Kaplan-Meier estimates of retention in care at 6, 12 and 18 months after enrolment into PODIs were respectively 96%, 92% and 88%. Conclusion: Retention in care and viral suppression among patients in PODI with VL results were better than patients in clinic care and national outcomes.
    • Scientific Communication: Reporting on Mental Health Illness (MHI) in Kenya: how well are we doing?

      Gituma, KS; Hussein, S; Mwitari, J; Kizito, W; Edwards, JK; Kihara, AB; Owiti, PO; Tweya, H (African Journals Online, 2016-10)
    • The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative for public health programmes

      Ramsay, A; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R; Bissel, K; Hinderaker, S G; Edginton, M; Enarson, D A; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Hoa, N B; et al. (The Union, 2014-06-21)