• Does HIV status affect the Aetiology, Bacterial Resistance Patterns and Recommended Empiric Antibiotic Treatment in adult patients with bloodstream infection in Cambodia?

      Phe, Thong; Vlieghe, Erika; Reid, Tony; Harries, Anthony D; Lim, Kruy; Thai, Sopheak; De Smet, Birgit; Veng, Chhunheng; Kham, Chun; Ieng, Sovann; et al. (2013-01-07)
      OBJECTIVE: The microbiologic causes of bloodstream infections (BSI) may differ between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients and direct initial empiric antibiotic treatment (i.e. treatment before culture results are available). We retrospectively assessed community-acquired BSI episodes in adults in Cambodia according to HIV status for spectrum of bacterial pathogens, antibiotic resistance patterns and appropriateness of empiric antibiotics. METHODS: Blood cultures were systematically performed in patients suspected of BSI in a referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Data were collected between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2011. RESULTS: A total of 452 culture-confirmed episodes of BSI were recorded in 435 patients, of whom 17.9% and 82.1% were HIV-positive and HIV-negative, respectively. Escherichia coli accounted for one-third (n = 155, 32.9%) of 471 organisms, with similar rates in both patient groups. Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella cholereasuis were more frequent in HIV-positive vs. HIV-negative patients (17/88 vs. 38/383 (P = 0.02) and 10/88 vs. 5/383 (P < 0.001)). Burkholderia pseudomallei was more common in HIV-negative than in HIV-positive patients (39/383 vs. 2/88, P < 0.001). High resistance rates among commonly used antibiotics were observed, including 46.6% ceftriaxone resistance among E. coli isolates. Empiric antibiotic treatments were similarly appropriate in both patient groups but did not cover antibiotic-resistant E. coli (both patient groups), S. aureus (both groups) and B. pseudomallei (HIV-negative patients). CONCLUSION: The present data do not warrant different empiric antibiotic regimens for HIV-positive vs. HIV-negative patients in Cambodia. The overall resistance rates compromise the appropriateness of the current treatment guidelines.