• Convergence of a Diabetes Mellitus, Protein Energy Malnutrition, and TB Epidemic: the Neglected Elderly Population

      Menon, S; Rossi, R; Nshimyumukiza, L; Wusiman, A; Zdraveska, N; Eldin, MS (BioMed Central, 2016-07-26)
      On a global scale, nearly two billion persons are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. From this vast reservoir of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, a substantial number will develop active TB during their lifetime, with some being able to transmit TB or Multi-drug- resistant (MDR) TB to others. There is clinical evidence pointing to a higher prevalence of infectious diseases including TB among individuals with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Furthermore, ageing and diabetes mellitus may further aggravate protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), which in turn impairs T-lymphocyte mediated immunologic defenses, thereby increasing the risk of developing active TB and compromising TB treatment. This article aims to a) highlight synergistic mechanisms associated with immunosenescence, DM and PEM in relation to the development of active TB and b) identify nutritional, clinical and epidemiological research gaps.