• Comparative Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve the HIV Continuum of Care and HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis in Kenya: A Model-Based Analysis

      Luong Nguyen, LB; Freedberg, KA; Wanjala, S; Maman, D; Szumilin, E; Mendiharat, P; Yazdanpanah, Y (Oxford University Press, 2020-10-27)
      Background In Western Kenya up to one-quarter of the adult population was human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected in 2012. The Ministry of Health, Médecins Sans Frontières, and partners implemented an HIV program that surpassed the 90-90-90 UNAIDS targets. In this generalized epidemic, we compared the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with improving continuum of care. Methods We developed a dynamic microsimulation model to project HIV incidence and infections averted to 2030. We modeled 3 strategies compared to a 90-90-90 continuum of care base case: (1) scaling up the continuum of care to 95-95-95, (2) PrEP targeting young adults with 10% coverage, and (3) scaling up to 95-95-95 and PrEP combined. Results In the base case, by 2030 HIV incidence was 0.37/100 person-years. Improving continuum levels to 95-95-95 averted 21.5% of infections, PrEP averted 8.0%, and combining 95-95-95 and PrEP averted 31.8%. Sensitivity analysis showed that PrEP coverage had to exceed 20% to avert as many infections as reaching 95-95-95. Conclusions In a generalized HIV epidemic with continuum of care levels at 90-90-90, improving the continuum to 95-95-95 is more effective than providing PrEP. Continued improvement in the continuum of care will have the greatest impact on decreasing new HIV infections.
    • Development of a Prediction Model for Ebola Virus Disease: A Retrospective Study in Nzérékoré Ebola Treatment Center, Guinea

      Loubet, P; Palich, R; Kojan, R; Peyrouset, O; Danel, C; Nicholas, S; Conde, M; Porten, K; Augier, A; Yazdanpanah, Y (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016-12-07)
      The 2014 Ebola epidemic has shown the importance of accurate and rapid triage tools for patients with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD). Our objective was to create a predictive score for EVD. We retrospectively reviewed all suspected cases admitted to the Ebola treatment center (ETC) in Nzérékoré, Guinea, between December 2, 2014, and February 23, 2015. We used a multivariate logistic regression model to identify clinical and epidemiological factors associated with EVD, which were used to create a predictive score. A bootstrap sampling method was applied to our sample to determine characteristics of the score to discriminate EVD. Among the 145 patients included in the study (48% male, median age 29 years), EVD was confirmed in 76 (52%) patients. One hundred and eleven (77%) patients had at least one epidemiological risk factor. Optimal cutoff value of fever to discriminate EVD was 38.5°C. After adjustment on presence of a risk factor, temperature higher than 38.5°C (odds ratio [OR] = 18.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.6-42.9), and anorexia (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1-6.1) were independently associated with EVD. The score had an area under curve of 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78-0.91) for the prediction of laboratory-confirmed EVD. Classification of patients in a high-risk group according to the score had a lower sensitivity (71% versus 86%) but higher specificity (85% versus 41%) than the existing World Health Organization algorithm. This score, which requires external validation, may be used in high-prevalence settings to identify different levels of risk in EVD suspected patients and thus allow a better orientation in different wards of ETC.
    • Experimental Treatment with Favipiravir for Ebola Virus Disease (the JIKI Trial): A Historically Controlled, Single-Arm Proof-of-Concept Trial in Guinea

      Sissoko, D; Laouenan, C; Folkesson, E; M'Lebing, AB; Beavogui, AH; Baize, S; Camara, AM; Maes, P; Shepherd, S; Danel, C; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2016-03-01)
      Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly lethal condition for which no specific treatment has proven efficacy. In September 2014, while the Ebola outbreak was at its peak, the World Health Organization released a short list of drugs suitable for EVD research. Favipiravir, an antiviral developed for the treatment of severe influenza, was one of these. In late 2014, the conditions for starting a randomized Ebola trial were not fulfilled for two reasons. One was the perception that, given the high number of patients presenting simultaneously and the very high mortality rate of the disease, it was ethically unacceptable to allocate patients from within the same family or village to receive or not receive an experimental drug, using a randomization process impossible to understand by very sick patients. The other was that, in the context of rumors and distrust of Ebola treatment centers, using a randomized design at the outset might lead even more patients to refuse to seek care. Therefore, we chose to conduct a multicenter non-randomized trial, in which all patients would receive favipiravir along with standardized care. The objectives of the trial were to test the feasibility and acceptability of an emergency trial in the context of a large Ebola outbreak, and to collect data on the safety and effectiveness of favipiravir in reducing mortality and viral load in patients with EVD. The trial was not aimed at directly informing future guidelines on Ebola treatment but at quickly gathering standardized preliminary data to optimize the design of future studies.
    • Voluntary Community Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing, Linkage, and Retention in Care Interventions in Kenya: Modeling the Clinical Impact and Cost-effectiveness

      Luong Nguyen, LB; Yazdanpanah, Y; Maman, D; Wanjala, S; Vandenbulcke, A; Price, J; Parker, RA; Hennequin, W; Mendiharat, P; Freedberg, KA (Oxford University Press, 2018-05-08)
      In southwest Kenya, the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is about 25%. Médecins Sans Frontières has implemented a voluntary community testing (VCT) program, with linkage to care and retention interventions, to achieve the Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets by 2017. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions.