• Barriers to pilot mobile teleophthalmology in a rural hospital in Southern Malawi

      Pérez, Guillermo Martínez; Swart, Wayne; Munyenyembe, Jimmy Kondwani; Saranchuk, Peter (African Field Epidemiology Network, 2014-09-10)
    • Hidden dangers-prevalence of blood borne pathogens, hepatitis B, C, HIV and syphilis, among blood donors in Sierra Leone in 2016: opportunities for improvement: a retrospective, cross-sectional study.

      Yambasu, EE; Reid, A; Owiti, P; Manzi, M; Murray, MJS; Edwin, AK (African Field Epidemiology Network, 2018-05-18)
      INTRODUCTION: Transmissible blood-borne infections are a serious threat to blood transfusion safety in West African countries; and yet blood remains a key therapeutic product in the clinical management of patients. Sierra Leone screens blood donors for blood-borne infections but has not implemented prevention of mother-to-child transmission for hepatitis B. This study aimed to describe the overall prevalence of hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis among blood donors in Sierra Leone in 2016 and to compare the differences between volunteer versus family replacement donors, as well as urban versus rural donors. METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study from January-December 2016 in five blood bank laboratories across the country. Routinely-collected programme data were analyzed; blood donors were tested with rapid diagnostic tests-HBsAg for HBV, anti-HCV antibody for HCV, antibodies HIV1&2 for HIV and TPHA for syphilis. RESULTS: There were 16807 blood samples analysed, with 80% from males; 2285 (13.6%) tested positive for at least one of the four pathogens. Overall prevalence was: 9.7% hepatitis B; 1.0% hepatitis C; 2.8% HIV; 0.8% syphilis. Prevalence was higher among samples from rural blood banks, the difference most marked for hepatitis C. The proportion of voluntary donors was 12%. Family replacement donors had a higher prevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV than volunteers. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of blood-borne pathogens, particularly hepatitis B, was revealed in Sierra Leone blood donors. The study suggests the country should implement the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B and push to recruit more volunteer, non-remunerated blood donors.
    • Infective endocarditis in Ethiopian children: a hospital based review of cases in Addis Ababa

      Moges, T; Gedlu, E; Isaakidis, P; Kumar, A; Den, R V; Khogali, M; Mekasha, A; Hinderaker, S G (African Field Epidemiology Network, 2015-01-28)
    • Refugee camp health services utilisation by non-camp residents as an indicator of unaddressed health needs of surrounding populations: a perspective from Mae La refugee camp in Thailand during 2006 and 2007.

      Alexakis, LC; Athanasiou, M; Konstantinou, A (African Field Epidemiology Network, 2019-04-17)
      INTRODUCTION: This study explored the differences on the level of medical care required by camp and non-camp resident patients during utilisation of the health services in Mae La refugee camp, Tak province, Thailand during the years 2006 and 2007. METHODS: Data were extracted from camp registers and the Health Information System used during the years 2006 and 2007 and statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: The analysis showed that during 2006 and 2007 non-camp resident patients, coming from Thailand as well as Myanmar, who sought care in the outpatient department (OPD) of the camp required at a significantly higher proportion admission to the inpatient department (IPD) or referral to the district hospital compared to camp resident patients. Although there was a statistically significant increased mortality of the non-camp resident patients admitted in the IPD compared to camp resident patients, there was no significant difference in mortality among these two groups when the referrals to the district hospital were analysed. CONCLUSION: Non-camp resident patients tended to need a more advanced level of medical care compared to camp resident patients. Provided that this it is further validated, the above observed pattern might be potentially useful as an indirect indicator of unaddressed health needs of populations surrounding a refugee camp.