• Caseload, management and treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus in a primary health care programme in an informal setting

      Sobry, Agnes; Kizito, Walter; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Isaakidis, Petros; Cheti, Erastus; Kosgei, Rose J.; Vandenbulcke, Alexandra; Ndegwa, Zacharia; Reid, Tony (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2013-10-23)
    • Laryngeal spasm after general anaesthesia due to Ascaris Lumbricoides

      Finsnes, K D; Kunduz Trauma Center, Médecins Sans Frontières, Kunduz, Afghanistan. k.finsnes@gmail.com (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2013-08)
      Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.
    • Liposomal amphotericin B for complicated visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in eastern Sudan: how effective is treatment for this neglected disease?

      Salih, Niven A; van Griensven, Johan; Chappuis, François; Antierens, Annick; Mumina, Ann; Hammam, Omar; Boulle, Philippa; Alirol, Emilie; Alnour, Mubarak; Elhag, Mousab S; et al. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2014-02)
      The aim of this study was to report the patient profile and treatment outcomes, including relapses, of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treated with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) in Gedaref, Sudan.
    • Paediatric HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa: clinical presentation and 2-year outcomes stratified by age group

      Ben-Farhat, Jihane; Gale, Marianne; Szumilin, Elisabeth; Balkan, Suna; Poulet, Elisabeth; Pujades-Rodríguez, Mar (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2013-09)
      To examine age differences in mortality and programme attrition amongst paediatric patients treated in four African HIV programmes.
    • Peanut-based ready-to-use therapeutic food: how acceptable and tolerated is it among malnourished pregnant and lactating women in Bangladesh?

      Ali, E; Zachariah, R; Shams, Z; Manzi, M; Akter, T; Alders, P; Allaouna, M; Delchevalerie, P; Harries, A D (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2013-05-06)
      Within a Medecins Sans Frontieres's nutrition programme in Kamrangirchar slum, Dhaka, Bangladesh this study was conducted to assess the acceptability of a peanut-based ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) - Plumpy'nut(®) (PPN) among malnourished pregnant and lactating women (PLW). This was a cross-sectional survey using semi-structure questionnaire that included all PLW admitted in the nutrition programme, who were either malnourished or at risk of malnutrition and who had received PPN for at least 4 weeks. A total of 248 women were interviewed of whom 99.6% were at risk of malnutrition. Overall, 212 (85%) perceived a therapeutic benefit. Despite this finding, 193 (78%) women found PPN unacceptable, of whom 12 (5%) completely rejected it after 4 weeks of intake. Reasons for unacceptability included undesirable taste (60%) and unwelcome smell (43%) - more than half of the latter was due to the peanut-based smell. Overall, 39% attributed side effects to PPN intake including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal distension and pain. Nearly 80% of women felt a need to improve PPN - 82% desiring a change in taste and 48% desiring a change in smell. Overall, only 146 (59%) understood the illustrated instructions on the package. Despite a perceived beneficial therapeutic effect, only two in 10 women found PPN acceptable for nutritional rehabilitation. We urge nutritional agencies and manufacturers to intensify their efforts towards developing more RUTF alternatives that have improved palatability and smell for adults and that have adequate therapeutic contents for treating malnourished PLW in Bangladesh.
    • Treatment outcomes in a cohort of Palestine refugees with diabetes mellitus followed through use of E-Health over 3 years in Jordan

      Khader, Ali; Ballout, Ghada; Shahin, Yousef; Hababeh, Majed; Farajallah, Loai; Zeidan, Wafaa; Abu-Zayed, Ishtaiwi; Kochi, Arata; Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony; et al. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2014-02)
      The aim of this study was to use E-Health to report on 12-month, 24-month and 36-month outcomes and late-stage complications of a cohort of Palestine refugees with diabetes mellitus (DM) registered in the second quarter of 2010 in a primary healthcare clinic in Amman, Jordan.
    • Village registers for vital registration in rural Malawi

      Singogo, E; Kanike, E; van Lettow, M; Cataldo, F; Zachariah, R; Bissell, K; Harries, A D; Dignitas International, Zomba, Malawi. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2013-08)
      Paper-based village registers were introduced 5 years ago in Malawi as a tool to measure vital statistics of births and deaths at the population level. However, usage, completeness and accuracy of their content have never been formally evaluated. In Traditional Authority Mwambo, Zomba district, Malawi, we assessed 280 of the 325 village registers with respect to (i) characteristics of village headmen who used village registers, (ii) use and content of village registers, and (iii) whether village registers provided accurate information on births and deaths. All village headpersons used registers. There were 185 (66%) registers that were regarded as 95% completed, and according to the registers, there were 115 840 people living in the villages in the catchment area. In 2011, there were 1753 births recorded in village registers, while 6397 births were recorded in health centre registers in the same catchment area. For the same year, 199 deaths were recorded in village registers, giving crude death rates per 100 000 population of 189 for males and 153 for females. These could not be compared with death rates in health centre registers due to poor and inconsistent recording in these registers, but they were compared with death rates obtained from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey that reported 880 and 840 per 100 000 for males and females, respectively. In conclusion, this study shows that village registers are a potential source for vital statistics. However, considerable inputs are needed to improve accuracy of births and deaths, and there are no functional systems for the collation and analysis of data at the traditional authority level. Innovative ways to address these challenges are discussed, including the use of solar-powered electronic village registers and mobile phones, connected with each other and the health facilities and the District Commissioner's office through the cellular network and wireless coverage.