• Safety and Effectiveness of Amphotericin B Deoxycholate for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Uganda.

      Mueller, Y; Nguimfack, A; Cavailler, P; Couffignal, S; Rwakimari, J B; Loutan, L; Chappuis, F; Médecins Sans Frontières, Swiss Section, Rue de Lausanne 78, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. yolanda.mueller@freesurf.ch (Maney Publishing, 2008-01)
      Between September 2003 and April 2004, the supply of antimonial drugs to Amudat Hospital, in north-eastern Uganda, was interrupted and all cases of visceral leishmaniasis presenting at the hospital could only be treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB). This allowed the safety and effectiveness of the AmB to be evaluated, in comparison with an historical cohort of patients treated, at the same hospital, with meglumine antimoniate (Sb(V)). Demographic and clinical data were collected before and after treatment. Adverse effects were recorded passively in all the subjects, and actively, using a standardized questionnaire, in a sub-group of the patients given AmB. The in hospital case-fatality 'rates' were 4.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4%-8.8%] among the 210 patients treated with AmB and 3.7% (CI = 1.4%-7.9%) among the 161 patients treated with Sb(V) (P>0.20). Adverse effects requiring treatment interruption were rare in both cohorts. Treatment failures (i.e. non-responses or relapses) were observed in 2.9% (CI = 1.2%-6.4%) of the patients treated with AmB and 1.2% (CI = 0.1%-4.4%) of the patients treated with Sb(V) (P>0.20). For the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Uganda, AmB therefore had a similar effectiveness and safety profile to that of meglumine antimoniate.
    • Treatment of severe malnutrition with 2-day intramuscular ceftriaxone vs 5-day amoxicillin.

      Dubray, C; Ibrahim, S A; Abdelmutalib, M; Guerin, P J; Dantoine, F; Belanger, F; Legros, D; Pinoges, L; Brown, V; Epicentre, Paris, France. (Maney Publishing, 2008-03)
      BACKGROUND: Systemic antibiotics are routinely prescribed for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). However, there is no consensus regarding the most suitable regimen. In a therapeutic feeding centre in Khartoum, Sudan, a randomised, unblinded, superiority-controlled trial was conducted, comparing once daily intramuscular injection with ceftriaxone for 2 days with oral amoxicillin twice daily for 5 days in children aged 6-59 months with SAM. METHODS: Commencing with the first measured weight gain (WG) following admission, the risk difference and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for children with a WG > or = 10 g/kg/day were calculated over a 14-day period. The recovery rate and case fatality ratio (CFR) between the two groups were also calculated. RESULTS: In an intention-to-treat analysis of 458 children, 53.5% (123/230) in the amoxicillin group and 55.7% (127/228, difference 2.2%, 95% CI -6.9-11.3) in the ceftriaxone group had a WG > or = 10 g/kg/day during a 14-day period. Recovery rate was 70% (161/230) in the amoxicillin group and 74.6% (170/228) in the ceftriaxone group (p=0.27). CFR was 3.9% (9/230) and 3.1% (7/228), respectively (p=0.67). Most deaths occurred within the 1st 2 weeks of admission. CONCLUSION: In the absence of severe complications, either ceftriaxone or amoxicillin is appropriate for malnourished children. However, in ambulatory programmes, especially where there are large numbers of admissions, ceftriaxone should facilitate the work of medical personnel.