• MSF experiences of providing multidisciplinary primary level NCD care for Syrian refugees and the host population in Jordan: an implementation study guided by the RE-AIM framework.

      Ansbro, E; Homan, T; Qasem, J; Bil, K; Tarawneh, MR; Roberts, R; Perel, P; Jobanputra, K (BioMed Central, 2021-04-26)
      Background: In response to the rising global NCD burden, humanitarian actors have rapidly scaled-up NCD services in crisis-affected low-and-middle income countries. Using the RE-AIM implementation framework, we evaluated a multidisciplinary, primary level model of NCD care for Syrian refugees and vulnerable Jordanians delivered by MSF in Irbid, Jordan. We examined the programme's Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption and acceptance, Implementation and Maintenance over time. Methods: This mixed methods retrospective evaluation, undertaken in 2017, comprised secondary analysis of pre-existing cross-sectional household survey data; analysis of routine cohort data from 2014 to 2017; descriptive costing analysis of total annual, per-patient and per-consultation costs for 2015-2017 from the provider-perspective; a clinical audit; a medication adherence survey; and qualitative research involving thematic analysis of individual interviews and focus group discussions. Results: The programme enrolled 23% of Syrian adult refugees with NCDs in Irbid governorate. The cohort mean age was 54.7 years; 71% had multi-morbidity and 9.9% self-reported a disability. The programme was acceptable to patients, staff and stakeholders. Blood pressure and glycaemic control improved as the programme matured and by 6.6 mmHg and 1.12 mmol/l respectively within 6 months of patient enrolment. Per patient per year cost increased 23% from INT$ 1424 (2015) to 1751 (2016), and by 9% to 1904 (2017). Cost per consultation increased from INT$ 209 to 253 (2015-2017). Staff reported that clinical guidelines were usable and patients' self-reported medication adherence was high. Individual, programmatic and organisational challenges to programme implementation and maintenance included the impact of war and the refugee experience on Syrian refugees' ability to engage; inadequate low-cost referral options; and challenges for MSF to rapidly adapt to operating in a highly regulated and complex health system. Essential programme adaptations included refinement of health education, development of mental health and psychosocial services and addition of essential referral pathways, home visit, physiotherapy and social worker services. Conclusion: RE-AIM proved a valuable tool in evaluating a complex intervention in a protracted humanitarian crisis setting. This multidisciplinary programme was largely acceptable, achieving good clinical outcomes, but for a limited number of patients and at relatively high cost. We propose that model simplification, adapted procurement practices and use of technology could improve cost effectiveness without reducing acceptability, and may facilitate replication.
    • "To die is better for me", social suffering among Syrian refugees at a noncommunicable disease clinic in Jordan: a qualitative study.

      Webster, R; Murphy, A; Bygrave, H; Ansbro, E; Grobbee, DE; Perel, P (BMC, 2020-09-01)
      Background: The conflict in Syria has required humanitarian agencies to implement primary-level services for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Jordan, given the high NCD burden amongst Syrian refugees; and to integrate mental health and psychosocial support into NCD services given their comorbidity and treatment interactions. However, no studies have explored the mental health needs of Syrian NCD patients. This paper aims to examine the interaction between physical and mental health of patients with NCDs at a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) clinic in Irbid, Jordan, in the context of social suffering. Methods: This qualitative study involved sixteen semi-structured interviews with Syrian refugee and Jordanian patients and two focus groups with Syrian refugees attending MSF's NCD services in Irbid, and eighteen semi-structured interviews with MSF clinical, managerial and administrative staff. These were conducted by research staff in August 2017 in Irbid, Amman and via Skype. Thematic analysis was used. Results: Respondents describe immense suffering and clearly perceived the interconnectedness of their physical wellbeing, mental health and social circumstances, in keeping with Kleinman's theory of social suffering. There was a 'disconnect' between staff and patients' perceptions of the potential role of the NCD and mental health service in alleviating this suffering. Possible explanations identified included respondent's low expectations of the ability of the service to impact on the root causes of their suffering, normalisation of distress, the prevailing biomedical view of mental ill-health among national clinicians and patients, and humanitarian actors' own cultural standpoints. Conclusion: Syrian and Jordanian NCD patients recognise the psychological dimensions of their illness but may not utilize clinic-based humanitarian mental health and psychosocial support services. Humanitarian agencies must engage with NCD patients to elicit their needs and design culturally relevant services.
    • What happens to Palestine refugees with diabetes mellitus in a primary healthcare centre in Jordan who fail to attend a quarterly clinic appointment?

      Khader, A; Ballout, G; Shahin, Y; Hababeh, M; Farajallah, L; Zeidan, W; Abu-Zayed, I; Kochi, A; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2014-01-06)
      In a primary healthcare clinic in Jordan to determine: (i) treatment outcomes stratified by baseline characteristics of all patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) ever registered as of June 2012 and (ii) in those who failed to attend the clinic in the quarter (April-June 2012), the number who repeatedly did not attend in subsequent quarters up to 1 year later, again stratified by baseline characteristics.