• Localised transmission hotspots of a typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo

      Ali, E; Bergh, RVD; D'hondt, R; Kuma-Kuma, D; Weggheleire, AD; Baudot, Y; Lambert, V; Hunter, P; Zachariah, R; Maes, P (PAMJ-Center for Public Health Research and Information, 2017)
      In a semi-urban setting in the Democratic Republic of Congo, this study aims to understand the dynamic of a typhoid fever (TF) outbreak and to assess: a) the existence of hot spots for TF transmission and b) the difference between typhoid cases identified within those hot spots and the general population in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, sanitation practice, and sources of drinking water.
    • Management of Cholera Epidemics in a Refugee Camp

      Brown, V; Jacquier, G; Bachy, C; Bitar, D; Legros, D; Epicentre, 8 rue Saint Sabin, 75011 Paris, France. (2002-12)
      Cholera epidemics in refugee camps represent a major public health emergency. In camps, precarious living conditions contribute to the transmission of the vibrio. Among the major epidemics reported in camps, we note as well those which have affected Africa in the last two decades. These epidemics are characterized by high attack rates and high case fatality ratios. Attack rates in refugee camps can exceed 5%. Appropriate control measures are adopted at international level. Actions carried out urgently must allow the proper supply of water, the control of excreta, and the improvement of general sanitary conditions and individual hygiene. Efficient management of cases in specialized cholera treatment centres (CTC) should decrease the case fatality ratio to less than 1%. Treatment is mainly based on the prompt rehydration of patients. For wide camps, rapid access to oral rehydration units is essential. Availability of all necessary equipment in kit form is required.
    • Safe Water for the Aral Sea Area: Could it get Any Worse?

      Small, I; Falzon, D; van der Meer, J; Ford, N; Médecins Sans Frontières, Aral Sea Programme, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. (Published by Oxford University Press, 2003-03)
      The environmental adversities around the Aral Sea in Central Asia have been the subject of recent research. Attempts at sustainable provision of palatable drinking water in low chemical and microbial contaminants for the 4 million people in the two countries around the Aral littoral have been largely unsuccessful. In the last few years, severe drought has further depleted the amount of available water. This shortage has negatively impacted on agriculture, and accentuated the out migration of people. An appeal is made to assist the local population in this arid area to cope with the acute and chronic deterioration of water security.