• Antiretroviral therapy outcomes in resource-limited settings for HIV-infected children <5 years of age.

      Sauvageot, D; Schaefer, M; Olson, D; Pujades-Rodriguez, M; O'Brien, D P; Epicentre, Paris, France. delphsauvageot@hotmail.com (2010-05)
      OBJECTIVE: We describe medium-term outcomes for young children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries. METHODS: Analyses were conducted on surveillance data for children <5 years of age receiving ART (initiated April 2002 to January 2008) in 48 HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Africa and Asia. Primary outcome measures were probability of remaining in care, probability of developing World Health Organization stage 4 clinical events, rate of switching to second-line ART, and drug toxicity, compared at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of ART. RESULTS: Of 3936 children (90% in Africa) initiating ART, 9% were <12 months, 50% were 12 to 35 months, and 41% were 36 to 59 months of age. The median time of ART was 10.5 months. Probabilities of remaining in care after 12, 24, and 36 months of ART were 0.85, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively. Compared with children 36 to 59 months of age at ART initiation, probabilities of remaining in care were significantly lower for children <12 months of age. Overall, 55% and 69% of deaths and losses to follow-up occurred in the first 3 and 6 months of ART, respectively. Probabilities of developing stage 4 clinical events after 12, 24, and 36 months of ART were 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09, respectively. Only 33 subjects (0.8%) switched to second-line regimens, and 151 (3.8%) experienced severe drug toxicities. CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale ART for children <5 years of age in resource-limited settings is feasible, with encouraging clinical outcomes, but efforts should be increased to improve early HIV diagnosis and treatment.
    • A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Cases Handled by the MSF Tele-Expertise System

      Martinez Garcia, D; Bonnardot, L; Olson, D; Roggeveen, H; Karsten, J; Moons, P; Schaefer, M; Liu, J; Wootton, R (Frontiers Media, 2014-12-08)
      We conducted a retrospective analysis of all pediatric cases referred by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) field doctors via the MSF telemedicine system during a 4-year period from April 2010. A total of 467 pediatric cases were submitted, representing approximately 40% of all telemedicine cases. The median age of the patients was 4 years. The median response time (i.e., the interval between the case being submitted and the first response from a specialist) was 13 h (interquartile range 4-32 h). We selected a random sample of 12 pediatric cases in each of four age categories for detailed analysis by an experienced MSF pediatrician. In the 48 randomly selected cases, the mean rating for the quality of information provided by the referrer was 2.8 (on a scale from 1 = very poor to 5 = very good), and the mean rating for the appropriateness of the response was 3.3 (same scale). More than two-thirds of the responses were considered to be useful to the patient, and approximately three-quarters were considered to be useful to the medical team. The usefulness of the responses tended to be higher for the medical team than for the patient, and there was some evidence that usefulness to both groups was lower in newborns and adolescent patients. The telemedicine system allows the quality of the medical support given to medical teams in the field to be controlled objectively as there is a record of all cases and answers. Telemedicine has an important role in supporting the aims of medical humanitarian organizations such as MSF.