• A comparison of narrative exposure therapy, supportive counseling, and psychoeducation for treating posttraumatic stress disorder in an african refugee settlement.

      Neuner, F; Schauer, M; Klaschik, C; Karunakara, U; Elbert, T; Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany. frank.neuner@uni-konstanz.de (2004-08)
      Little is known about the usefulness of psychotherapeutic approaches for traumatized refugees who continue to live in dangerous conditions. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is a short-term approach based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and testimony therapy. The efficacy of narrative exposure therapy was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Sudanese refugees living in a Ugandan refugee settlement (N = 43) who were diagnosed as suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) either received 4 sessions of NET, 4 sessions of supportive counseling (SC), or psychoeducation (PE) completed in 1 session. One year after treatment, only 29% of the NET participants but 79% of the SC group and 80% of the PE group still fulfilled PTSD criteria. These results indicate that NET is a promising approach for the treatment of PTSD for refugees living in unsafe conditions.
    • The efficacy of a mental health program in Bosnia-Herzegovina: impact on coping and general health.

      Mooren, T T M; de Jong, K; Kleber, R J; Ruvic, J; De Vonk, Centrum '45, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands. T.Mooren@Centrum45.nl (Wiley-Blackwell, 2003-01)
      The efficacy of a community-based psychosocial program in Bosnia-Herzegovina during the war and immediate postwar years (1994-1999) was described in this article. Ten centers provided various kinds of psychological help in the besieged city of Sarajevo and the towns of Zenica, Travnik, and Vitez. Since 1994, an intensive monitoring system has documented data on clients, interventions, and outcomes. This study focused on the systematic evaluation of counseling interventions aimed to alleviate the distress in wartime. The sample consisted of 3,283 and 1,785 inhabitants of Sarajevo, Zenica, Travnik, and Vitez who filled out the GHQ-28 and IES respectively. Pre- and post-assessments were compared throughout consecutive years (1994-1999) and across age groups and both sexes. Outcomes of these scales reflected very high scores, especially among people between 30 and 40 years of age. Furthermore, intake scores increased in time rather than decreased. Differences between pre- and postmeasurements are highly significant--throughout the years. Analyses revealed substantial proportions of clinically recovered or generally improved individual functioning, although some clients revealed no improvement.
    • The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Rwandan and Burundese Refugee Camps

      de Jong, J; Scholte, W F; Koeter, M W; Hart, A A; Médecins Sans Frontières, Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. (2000-09)
      OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence of mental health problems in refugees living in camps that emerged in Tanzania during the Rwanda crisis that started in 1994. METHOD: Using the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), we examined two samples: a random sample (n = 854) and a sample of clients of a psychosocial support programme in these camps (n = 23). Sensitivity, specificity and positive- and negative predictive values were estimated for several cut-off scores of the GHQ-28. RESULTS: The prevalence of serious mental health problems was estimated at 50% (SE 12%). When using the GHQ-28 as a screener, a cut-off score of 14 is recommended. CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of mental health problems, psychosocial programmes for large refugee populations should aim at strengthening community structures and supporting groups instead of focusing at individuals. The screening capacity of the GHQ-28 could be used to identify mentally vulnerable groups.