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Association between admission criteria and body composition among young children with moderate acute malnutrition, a cross-sectional study from Burkina Faso.Fabiansen, C; Cichon, B; Yameogo, CW; Iuel-Brockdorf, A-S; Phelan, K; Wells, JC; Ritz, C; Filteau, S; Briend, A; Christensen, VB; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-08-06)Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated based on low weight-for-length z-score (WLZ), low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) or both. This study aimed to assess associations of admission criteria and body composition (BC), to improve treatment of MAM. We undertook a cross-sectional study among 6-23 months old Burkinabe children with MAM. Fat-free (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were determined by deuterium dilution and expressed as FFM (FFMI) and FM index (FMI). Of 1,489 children, 439 (29.5%) were recruited by low MUAC only (MUAC-O), 734 (49.3%) by low WLZ and low MUAC (WLZ-MUAC) and 316 (21.2%) by low WLZ only (WLZ-O). Thus, 1,173 (78.8%) were recruited by low MUAC, with or without low WLZ (ALL-MUAC). After adjustments, WLZ-O had 89 g (95% confidence interval (CI) 5; 172) lower FFM compared to MUAC-O. Similarly, WLZ-O had 0.89 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.77; 1.01) lower FFMI compared to MUAC-O, whereas there was no difference for FMI. However, boys included by WLZ-O compared to MUAC-O had 0.21 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.05; 0.38) higher FMI. In contrast, girls included by WLZ-O had 0.17 (95% CI 0.01; 0.33) kg/m2 lower FMI compared to MUAC-O (interaction, p = 0.002). We found that different criteria for admission into MAM treatment programmes select children with differences in BC, especially FFMI.
Thymus size in children with moderate malnutrition: a cohort study from Burkina FasoRytter, MJ; Cichon, B; Fabiansen, C; Yameogo, CW; Windinmi, SZ; Michaelsen, KF; Filteau, S; Jeppesen, DL; Friis, H; Briend, A; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2020-07-20)Background: Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) affects millions of children, increasing their risk of dying from infections. Thymus atrophy may be a marker of malnutrition-associated immunodeficiency, but factors associated with thymus size in children with MAM are unknown, as is the effect of nutritional interventions on thymus size. Methods: Thymus size was measured by ultrasound in 279 children in Burkina Faso with MAM, diagnosed by low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and/or low weight-for-length z-score (WLZ), who received 12 weeks treatment with different food supplements as part of a randomized trial. Correlates of thymus size and of changes in thymus size after treatment, and after another 12 weeks of follow-up were identified. Results: Thymus size correlated positively with age, anthropometry and blood haemoglobin, and was smaller in children with malaria. Children with malnutrition diagnosed using MUAC had a smaller thymus than children diagnosed based on WLZ. Thymus size increased during and after treatment, similarly across the different food supplement groups. Conclusions: In children with MAM, the thymus is smaller in children with anaemia or malaria, and grows with recovery. Assuming that thymus size reflects vulnerability, low MUAC seems to identify more vulnerable children than low WLZ in children with MAM. Impact: Thymus atrophy is known to be a marker of the immunodeficiency associated with malnutrition in children.In children with moderate malnutrition, we found the thymus to be smaller in children with anaemia or malaria.Assuming that thymus size reflects vulnerability, low MUAC seems to identify more vulnerable children than low weight for length.Thymus atrophy appears reversible with recovery from malnutrition, with similar growth seen in children randomized to treatment with different nutritional supplements.