• Efficacy of a Therapeutic Feeding Centre Evaluated During Hospitalization and a Follow-up Period, Tahoua, Niger, 1987-1988.

      Pécoul, B; Soutif, C; Hounkpevi, M; Ducos, M; Epicentre, Paris, France. (Maney Publilshing, 1992)
      Between 1 February 1987 and 31 May 1988 an evaluation of a nutritional rehabilitation centre in Tahoua, Niger was conducted. Among the 381 children admitted to the centre, 61 (16%) had kwashiorkor and 347 (91.3%) were aged between 6 and 29 months. Recovery and death rates were 46.2% and 14.4%, respectively. The median duration of stay until recovery was 21 days. Sixty-two per cent of deaths occurred during the 1st week of hospitalization. Three risk factors for death were identified by the study: patients with kwashiorkor with a weight/height (W/H) less than -3 SD, those with marasmus with a W/H less than -5 SD, and those dehydrated with marasmus. Among children included in the follow-up study after leaving the centre, the risk of dying during the follow-up period among children who absconded was 7.1 times higher than the risk observed among children who recovered. Among the children who recovered, no relapse was observed 3-18 months after they left the centre. This investigation indicates the importance of intensive therapeutic feeding centres in areas with a high prevalence of malnutrition.
    • Treatment of severe malnutrition with 2-day intramuscular ceftriaxone vs 5-day amoxicillin.

      Dubray, C; Ibrahim, S A; Abdelmutalib, M; Guerin, P J; Dantoine, F; Belanger, F; Legros, D; Pinoges, L; Brown, V; Epicentre, Paris, France. (Maney Publishing, 2008-03)
      BACKGROUND: Systemic antibiotics are routinely prescribed for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). However, there is no consensus regarding the most suitable regimen. In a therapeutic feeding centre in Khartoum, Sudan, a randomised, unblinded, superiority-controlled trial was conducted, comparing once daily intramuscular injection with ceftriaxone for 2 days with oral amoxicillin twice daily for 5 days in children aged 6-59 months with SAM. METHODS: Commencing with the first measured weight gain (WG) following admission, the risk difference and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for children with a WG > or = 10 g/kg/day were calculated over a 14-day period. The recovery rate and case fatality ratio (CFR) between the two groups were also calculated. RESULTS: In an intention-to-treat analysis of 458 children, 53.5% (123/230) in the amoxicillin group and 55.7% (127/228, difference 2.2%, 95% CI -6.9-11.3) in the ceftriaxone group had a WG > or = 10 g/kg/day during a 14-day period. Recovery rate was 70% (161/230) in the amoxicillin group and 74.6% (170/228) in the ceftriaxone group (p=0.27). CFR was 3.9% (9/230) and 3.1% (7/228), respectively (p=0.67). Most deaths occurred within the 1st 2 weeks of admission. CONCLUSION: In the absence of severe complications, either ceftriaxone or amoxicillin is appropriate for malnourished children. However, in ambulatory programmes, especially where there are large numbers of admissions, ceftriaxone should facilitate the work of medical personnel.