Now showing items 1-20 of 94

    • Improving estimates of the burden of severe wasting: analysis of secondary prevalence and incidence data from 352 sites.

      Isanaka, S; Andersen, CT; Cousens, S; Myatt, M; Briend, A; Krasevec, J; Hayashi, C; Mayberry, A; Mwirigi, L; Guerrero, S (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-03-01)
      Introduction Estimates of incident cases of severe wasting among young children are not available for most settings but are needed for optimal planning of treatment programmes and burden estimation. To improve programme planning, global guidance recommends a single ‘incidence correction factor’ of 1.6 be applied to available prevalence estimates to account for incident cases. This study aimed to update estimates of the incidence correction factor to improve programme planning and inform the approach to burden estimation for severe wasting. Methods A global call was issued for secondary data from severe wasting treatment programmes including prevalence, population size, programme admission and programme coverage through a UNICEF-led effort. Site-specific incidence correction factors were calculated as the number of incident cases (annual programme admissions/programme coverage) divided by the number of prevalent cases (prevalence*population size). Estimates were aggregated by country, region and overall using inverse-variance weighted random-effects meta-analysis. Results We estimated incidence correction factors from 352 sites in 20 countries. Estimates aggregated by country ranged from 1.3 (Nigeria) to 30.1 (Burundi). Excluding implausible values, the overall incidence correction factor was 3.6 (95% CI 3.4 to 3.9). Conclusion Our results suggest that incidence correction factors vary between sites and that the burden of severe wasting will often be underestimated using the currently recommended incidence correction factor of 1.6. Application of updated incidence correction factors represents a simple way to improve programme planning when incidence data are not available and could inform the approach to burden estimation.
    • Description of a community paediatric strategy offering a package of services to prevent malnutrition among children in one health district in Mali

      Roederer, T; Llosa, AE; Shepherd, S; Defourny, I; Lacharite, MO; Okonta, C; Magassa, M; Traore, M; Schaefer, M; Grais, RF (2021-01-26)
      Background We present results from an intervention case study, the Soins Preventifs de l’Enfant (SPE) project, in Konséguéla health area, Mali. The intervention involved a network of community health workers providing a comprehensive preventive/therapeutic package, ultimately aiming at reducing under 24-month mortality. Associated costs were documented to assess the feasibility of replication and scale-up. Methods SPE program monitoring data were obtained from booklets specific to the program between 2010 and 2014. Data included sex, age, vaccination status, anthropometric measurements, Ready-To-Use-Supplementary Food distribution, morbidities reported by the mother between visits, hospitalizations over 18 months of follow-up. Cross-sectional surveys in the district of Koutiala, of which Konséguéla is one health area, were conducted yearly between 2010 and 2014 for comparison, using difference-in-difference approach. Ethical approval was granted from the Malian Ethical Committee. Results Global and Severe Acute Malnutrition prevalences decreased over time in Konséguéla as well as in the rest of the district, but the difference between areas was not significant. Children reaching 24 months were 20% less stunted in Konséguéla than children the same age outside (p<0.001). Mortality rates significantly decreased more in Konséguéla, while vaccination coverage for all antigens significantly increased in the meantime. The package cost approximately USD 95 per child per year; 56% of which was for the RUSF. Conclusion The results of this case study suggest a sustained impact of a community based, comprehensive health package on major child health indicators. Most notably, while improvements in acute malnutrition were found in the district as a whole, those in the intervention area were more pronounced. Trends for other indicators suggest additional benefits.
    • Delivering health and nutrition interventions for women and children in different conflict contexts: a framework for decision making on what, when, and how.

      Gaffey, MF; Waldman, RJ; Blanchet, K; Amsalu, R; Capobianco, E; Ho, LS; Khara, T; Garcia, DM; Aboubaker, S; Ashorn, P; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-01-24)
      Existing global guidance for addressing women's and children's health and nutrition in humanitarian crises is not sufficiently contextualised for conflict settings specifically, reflecting the still-limited evidence that is available from such settings. As a preliminary step towards filling this guidance gap, we propose a conflict-specific framework that aims to guide decision makers focused on the health and nutrition of women and children affected by conflict to prioritise interventions that would address the major causes of mortality and morbidity among women and children in their particular settings and that could also be feasibly delivered in those settings. Assessing local needs, identifying relevant interventions from among those already recommended for humanitarian settings or universally, and assessing the contextual feasibility of delivery for each candidate intervention are key steps in the framework. We illustratively apply the proposed decision making framework to show what a framework-guided selection of priority interventions might look like in three hypothetical conflict contexts that differ in terms of levels of insecurity and patterns of population displacement. In doing so, we aim to catalyse further iteration and eventual field-testing of such a decision making framework by local, national, and international organisations and agencies involved in the humanitarian health response for women and children affected by conflict.
    • Impact of food supplements on early child development in children with moderate acute malnutrition: A randomised 2 x 2 x 3 factorial trial in Burkina Faso

      Olsen, MF; Iuel-Brockdorff, AS; Yameogo, CW; Cichon, B; Fabiansen, C; Filteau, S; Phelan, K; Ouedraogo, A; Michaelsen, KF; Gladstone, M; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2020-12-23)
      Background Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and corn–soy blends (CSBs) with varying soy and milk content are used in treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). We assessed the impact of these supplements on child development. Methods and findings We conducted a randomised 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial to assess the effectiveness of 12 weeks’ supplementation with LNS or CSB, with either soy isolate or dehulled soy, and either 0%, 20%, or 50% of protein from milk, on child development among 6–23-month-old children with MAM. Recruitment took place at 5 health centres in Province du Passoré, Burkina Faso between September 2013 and August 2014. The study was fully blinded with respect to soy quality and milk content, while study participants were not blinded with respect to matrix. This analysis presents secondary trial outcomes: Gross motor, fine motor, and language development were assessed using the Malawi Development Assessment Tool (MDAT). Of 1,609 children enrolled, 54.7% were girls, and median age was 11.3 months (interquartile range [IQR] 8.2–16.0). Twelve weeks follow-up was completed by 1,548 (96.2%), and 24 weeks follow-up was completed by 1,503 (93.4%); follow-up was similar between randomised groups. During the study, 4 children died, and 102 children developed severe acute malnutrition (SAM). There was no difference in adverse events between randomised groups. At 12 weeks, the mean MDAT z-scores in the whole cohort had increased by 0.33 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.37), p < 0.001 for gross motor; 0.26 (0.20, 0.31), p < 0.001 for fine motor; and 0.14 (0.09, 0.20), p < 0.001 for language development. Children had larger improvement in language z-scores if receiving supplements with milk (20%: 0.09 [−0.01, 0.19], p = 0.08 and 50%: 0.11 [0.01, 0.21], p = 0.02), although the difference only reached statistical significance for 50% milk. Post hoc analyses suggested that this effect was specific to boys (interaction p = 0.02). The fine motor z-scores were also improved in children receiving milk, but only when 20% milk was added to CSB (0.18 [0.03, 0.33], p = 0.02). Soy isolate over dehulled soy increased language z-scores by 0.07 (−0.01, 0.15), p = 0.10, although not statistically significant. Post hoc analyses suggested that LNS benefited gross motor development among boys more than did CSB (interaction p = 0.04). Differences between supplement groups did not persist at 24 weeks, but MDAT z-scores continued to increase post-supplementation. The lack of an unsupplemented control group limits us from determining the overall effects of nutritional supplementation for children with MAM. Conclusions In this study, we found that child development improved during and after supplementation for treatment of MAM. Milk protein was beneficial for language and fine motor development, while suggested benefits related to soy quality and supplement matrix merit further investigation. Supplement-specific effects were not found post-intervention, but z-scores continued to improve, suggesting a sustained overall effect of supplementation.
    • Understanding the Impact of Historical Policy Legacies on Nutrition Policy Space: Economic Policy Agendas and Current Food Policy Paradigms in Ghana

      Thow, AM; Apprey, C; Winters, J; Stellmach, D; Alders, R; Aduku, LNE; Mulcahy, G; Annan, R (Kerman University of Medical Sciences, 2020-11-09)
      Background The global food system is not delivering affordable, healthy, diverse diets, which are needed to address malnutrition in all its forms for sustainable development. This will require policy change across the economic sectors that govern food systems, including agriculture, trade, finance, commerce and industry – a goal that has been beset by political challenges. These sectors have been strongly influenced by entrenched policy agendas and paradigms supported by influential global actors such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). Methods This study draws on the concept of path dependency to examine how historical economic policy agendas and paradigms have influenced current food and nutrition policy and politics in Ghana. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 29 relevant policy actors, and documentary data were collected from current policies, academic and grey literature, historical budget statements and World Bank Group Archives (1950-present). Results Despite increased political priority for nutrition in Ghana, its integration into food policy remains limited. Food policy agendas are strongly focused on production, employment and economic returns, and existing market-based incentives do not support a nutrition-sensitive food supply. This policy focus appears to be rooted in a liberal economic approach to food policy arising from structural adjustment in the 1980s and trade liberalization in the 1990s, combined with historical experience of ‘failure’ of food policy intervention and an entrenched narrowly economic conception of food security. Conclusion This study suggests that attention to policy paradigms, in addition to specific points of policy change, will be essential for improving the outcomes of food systems for nutrition. An historical perspective can provide food and health policy-makers with insights to foster the revisioning of food policy to address multiple national policy objectives, including nutrition.
    • The availability of global guidance for the promotion of women’s, newborns’, children’s and adolescents’ health and nutrition in conflicts

      Aboubaker, S; Evers, ES; Kobeissi, L; Francis, L; Najjemba, R; Miller, NP; Wall, S; Martinez, D; Vargas, J; Ashorn, P; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2020-11-01)
      Background Significant global gains in sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health and nutrition (SRMNCAH&N) will be difficult unless conflict settings are adequately addressed. We aimed to determine the amount, scope and quality of publically available guidance documents, to characterise the process by which agencies develop their guidance and to identify gaps in guidance on SRMNCAH&N promotion in conflicts. Methods We identified guidance documents published between 2008 and 2018 through English-language Internet sites of humanitarian response organisations, reviewed them for their scope and assessed their quality with the AGREE II (Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation II) tool. Additionally, we interviewed 22 key informants on guidance development, dissemination processes, perceived guidance gaps and applicability. Findings We identified 105 conflict-relevant guidance documents from 75 organisations. Of these, nine were specific to conflicts, others were applicable also to other humanitarian settings. Fifteen documents were technical normative guidelines, others were operational guides (67), descriptive documents (21) or advice on legal, human rights or ethics questions (2). Nutrition was the most addressed health topic, followed by communicable diseases and violence. The documents rated high quality in their ‘scope and purpose’ and ‘clarity of presentation’ and low for ‘rigour of development’ and ‘editorial independence’. Key informants reported end user need as the primary driver for guideline development and WHO technical guidelines as their main evidence base. Insufficient local contextualisation, lack of inter-agency coordination and lack of systematic implementation were considered problems in guideline development. Several guidance gaps were noted, including abortion care, newborn care, early child development, mental health, adolescent health beyond sexual and reproductive health and non-communicable diseases. Interpretation Organisations are motivated and actively producing guidance for SRMNCAH&N promotion in humanitarian settings, but few documents address conflicts specifically and there are important guidance gaps. Improved inter-organisation collaboration for guidance on SRMNCAH&N promotion in conflicts and other humanitarian settings is needed.
    • Association between admission criteria and body composition among young children with moderate acute malnutrition, a cross-sectional study from Burkina Faso.

      Fabiansen, C; Cichon, B; Yameogo, CW; Iuel-Brockdorf, A-S; Phelan, K; Wells, JC; Ritz, C; Filteau, S; Briend, A; Christensen, VB; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-08-06)
      Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated based on low weight-for-length z-score (WLZ), low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) or both. This study aimed to assess associations of admission criteria and body composition (BC), to improve treatment of MAM. We undertook a cross-sectional study among 6-23 months old Burkinabe children with MAM. Fat-free (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were determined by deuterium dilution and expressed as FFM (FFMI) and FM index (FMI). Of 1,489 children, 439 (29.5%) were recruited by low MUAC only (MUAC-O), 734 (49.3%) by low WLZ and low MUAC (WLZ-MUAC) and 316 (21.2%) by low WLZ only (WLZ-O). Thus, 1,173 (78.8%) were recruited by low MUAC, with or without low WLZ (ALL-MUAC). After adjustments, WLZ-O had 89 g (95% confidence interval (CI) 5; 172) lower FFM compared to MUAC-O. Similarly, WLZ-O had 0.89 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.77; 1.01) lower FFMI compared to MUAC-O, whereas there was no difference for FMI. However, boys included by WLZ-O compared to MUAC-O had 0.21 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.05; 0.38) higher FMI. In contrast, girls included by WLZ-O had 0.17 (95% CI 0.01; 0.33) kg/m2 lower FMI compared to MUAC-O (interaction, p = 0.002). We found that different criteria for admission into MAM treatment programmes select children with differences in BC, especially FFMI.
    • Thymus size in children with moderate malnutrition: a cohort study from Burkina Faso

      Rytter, MJ; Cichon, B; Fabiansen, C; Yameogo, CW; Windinmi, SZ; Michaelsen, KF; Filteau, S; Jeppesen, DL; Friis, H; Briend, A; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2020-07-20)
      Background: Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) affects millions of children, increasing their risk of dying from infections. Thymus atrophy may be a marker of malnutrition-associated immunodeficiency, but factors associated with thymus size in children with MAM are unknown, as is the effect of nutritional interventions on thymus size. Methods: Thymus size was measured by ultrasound in 279 children in Burkina Faso with MAM, diagnosed by low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and/or low weight-for-length z-score (WLZ), who received 12 weeks treatment with different food supplements as part of a randomized trial. Correlates of thymus size and of changes in thymus size after treatment, and after another 12 weeks of follow-up were identified. Results: Thymus size correlated positively with age, anthropometry and blood haemoglobin, and was smaller in children with malaria. Children with malnutrition diagnosed using MUAC had a smaller thymus than children diagnosed based on WLZ. Thymus size increased during and after treatment, similarly across the different food supplement groups. Conclusions: In children with MAM, the thymus is smaller in children with anaemia or malaria, and grows with recovery. Assuming that thymus size reflects vulnerability, low MUAC seems to identify more vulnerable children than low WLZ in children with MAM. Impact: Thymus atrophy is known to be a marker of the immunodeficiency associated with malnutrition in children.In children with moderate malnutrition, we found the thymus to be smaller in children with anaemia or malaria.Assuming that thymus size reflects vulnerability, low MUAC seems to identify more vulnerable children than low weight for length.Thymus atrophy appears reversible with recovery from malnutrition, with similar growth seen in children randomized to treatment with different nutritional supplements.
    • Energy needs in the treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition: Secondary analysis to optimize delivery of ready-to-use therapeutic foods

      Isanaka, S; Andersen, CT; Hanson, KE; Berthé, F; Grais, RFF; Briend, A (Wiley, 2020-03-07)
      Outpatient therapeutic feeding protocols for the treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in children were initially based on weight gain data from inpatient settings and expert knowledge of the physiological requirements during recovery. However, weight gain and energy requirements from historic inpatient settings may differ from modern outpatient settings and therefore may not be appropriate to guide current therapeutic feeding protocols. We calculated the weight gain and average estimated total daily energy requirement of children successfully treated for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition as outpatients in Niger (n = 790). Mean energy provided by six therapeutic feeding protocols was calculated and compared with average estimated energy requirements in the study population. Overall weight gain was 5.5 g·kg-1 ·day-1 among recovered children. Average energy requirements ranged from 92 to 110 kcal·kg-1 ·day-1 depending on the estimation approach. Two current therapeutic feeding protocols were found to provide an excess of energy after the first week of treatment in our study population, whereas four research protocols tended to provide less energy than the estimated requirement after the first week of treatment. Alternative feeding protocols have the potential to simplify and lead to important savings for programmes but should be evaluated to show adequacy to meet the energy needs of children under treatment, as well as feasibility and cost efficiency. Our findings rely on theoretical calculations based on several assumptions and should be confirmed in field studies.
    • Intrahousehold management and use of nutritional supplements during the hunger gap in Maradi region, Niger: a qualitative study

      Marquer, C; Langendorf, C; Woi-Messe, LC; Berthe, F; Ategbo, EA; Rodas-Moya, S; dePee, S; Grais, RFF (BioMed Central, 2020-03-03)
      BACKGROUND: Nutritional supplements are used for preventing and treating childhood malnutrition. While there is a growing body of evidence on product efficacy, less emphasis has been placed on how they are perceived and used at the household level. Here, we report on the intrahousehold management of three different supplements (Ready to Use Supplementary food (RUSF), medium quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS-MQ) and Super Cereal Plus (SC+)) in the region of Maradi (Niger). The main objective of this study was to describe the use, consumption and perception of the three different nutritional products at the household level. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Madarounfa district in the region of Maradi (February - March 2012). Female caregivers were purposely selected from eligible households and invited to participate. Data were collected through focus group discussion and interviews and were analyzed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: In total, 114 caregivers participated. Three major themes were initially identified and included preparation and conservation; consumption and sharing practices as well as perception of impact. The data showed good acceptance at the household level including perceived benefits for the target children, health improvement, prevention of illness and malnutrition. Sharing and gifting at both household and community level were also reported. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers displayed positive perceptions toward the investigated supplements. Patterns of actual management should be considered in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of future programs.
    • Prevention of child wasting: Results of a Child Health & Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) prioritisation exercise

      Frison, S; Angood, C; Khara, T; Bahwere, P; Black, R; Briend, A; Connell, N; Fenn, B; Isanaka, S; James, P; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2020-02-12)
      BACKGROUND: An estimated 49.5 million children under five years of age are wasted. There is a lack of robust studies on effective interventions to prevent wasting. The aim of this study was to identify and prioritise the main outstanding research questions in relation to wasting prevention to inform future research agendas. METHOD: A research prioritisation exercise was conducted following the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. Identified research gaps were compiled from multiple sources, categorised into themes and streamlined into forty research questions by an expert group. A survey was then widely circulated to assess research questions according to four criteria. An overall research priority score was calculated to rank questions. FINDINGS: The prioritised questions have a strong focus on interventions. The importance of the early stages of life in determining later experiences of wasting was highlighted. Other important themes included the identification of at-risk infants and young children early in the progression of wasting and the roles of existing interventions and the health system in prevention. DISCUSSION: These results indicate consensus to support more research on the pathways to wasting encompassing the in-utero environment, on the early period of infancy and on the process of wasting and its early identification. They also reinforce how little is known about impactful interventions for the prevention of wasting. CONCLUSION: This exercise provides a five-year investment case for research that could most effectively improve on-the-ground programmes to prevent child wasting and inform supportive policy change.
    • Extended Follow-up From a Randomized Clinical Trial of Routine Amoxicillin in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Severe Acute Malnutrition in Niger.

      Isanaka, S; Grantz, KH; Berthe, F; Schaefer, M; Adehossi, E; Grais, RFF (American Medical Association, 2020-01-13)
    • Active and adaptive case finding to estimate therapeutic program coverage for severe acute malnutrition: a capture-recapture study

      Isanaka, S; Salou, H; Hedt-Guathier, B; Grais, RF; Allen, B; Berthé, F; Salou, H (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-12-16)
      Background: Coverage is an important indicator to assess both the performance and effectiveness of public health programs. Recommended methods for coverage estimation for the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) can involve active and adaptive case finding (AACF), an informant-driven sampling procedure, for the identification of cases. However, as this procedure can yield a non-representative sample, exhaustive or near exhaustive case identification is needed for valid coverage estimation with AACF. Important uncertainty remains as to whether an adequate level of exhaustivity for valid coverage estimation can be ensured by AACF. Methods: We assessed the sensitivity of AACF and a census method using a capture-recapture design in northwestern Nigeria. Program coverage was estimated for each case finding procedure. Results: The sensitivity of AACF was 69.5% (95% CI: 59.8, 79.2) and 91.9% (95% CI: 85.1, 98.8) with census case finding. Program coverage was estimated to be 40.3% (95% CI 28.6, 52.0) using AACF, compared to 34.9% (95% CI 24.7, 45.2) using the census. Depending on the distribution of coverage among missed cases, AACF sensitivity of at least ≥70% was generally required for coverage estimation to remain within ±10% of the census estimate. Conclusion: Given the impact incomplete case finding and low sensitivity can have on coverage estimation in potentially non-representative samples, adequate attention and resources should be committed to ensure exhaustive or near exhaustive case finding
    • Beyond wasted and stunted—a major shift to fight child undernutrition

      Wells, JCK; Briend, A; Boyd, EM; Berkely, JA; Hall, A; Isanaka, S; Webb, P; Khara, T; Dolan, C (Elsevier, 2019-09-11)
      Child undernutrition refers broadly to the condition in which food intake is inadequate to meet a child's needs for physiological function, growth, and the capacity to respond to illness. Since the 1970s, nutritionists have categorised undernutrition in two major ways, either as wasted (ie, low weight for height, or small mid-upper arm circumference) or stunted (ie, low height for age). This approach, although useful for identifying populations at risk of undernutrition, creates several problems: the focus is on children who have already become undernourished, and this approach draws an artificial distinction between two idealised types of undernourished children that are widely interpreted as indicative of either acute or chronic undernutrition. This distinction in turn has led to the separation of programmatic approaches to prevent and treat child undernutrition. In the past 3 years, research has shown that individual children are at risk of both conditions, might be born with both, pass from one state to the other over time, and accumulate risks to their health and life through their combined effects. The current emphasis on identifying children who are already wasted or stunted detracts attention from the larger number of children undergoing the process of becoming undernourished. We call for a major shift in thinking regarding how we assess child undernutrition, and how prevention and treatment programmes can best address the diverse causes and dynamic biological processes that underlie undernutrition.
    • Feasibility of engaging caregivers in at‐home surveillance of children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition

      Isanaka, S; Berthe, F; Nackers, F; Tang, K; Hanson, KE; Grais, RFF (John Wiley & Sons, 2019-07-23)
      Many factors can contribute to low coverage of treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM), and a limited number of health facilities and trained personnel can constrain the number of children that receive treatment. Alternative models of care that shift the responsibility for routine clinical and anthropometric surveillance from the health facility to the household could reduce the burden of care associated with frequent facility-based visits for both healthcare providers and caregivers. To assess the feasibility of shifting clinical surveillance to caregivers in the outpatient management of SAM, we conducted a pilot study to assess caregivers' understanding and retention of key concepts related to the surveillance of clinical danger signs and anthropometric measurement over a 28-day period. At the time of a child's admission to nutritional treatment, a study nurse provided a short training to groups of caregivers on two topics: (a) clinical danger signs in children with SAM that warrant facility-based care and (b) methods to measure and monitor their child's mid-upper arm circumference. Caregiver understanding was assessed using standardized questionnaires before training, immediately after training, and 28 days after training. Knowledge of most clinical danger signs (e.g., convulsions, edema, poor appetite, respiratory distress, and lethargy) was low (0-45%) before training but increased immediately after and was retained 28 days after training. Agreement between nurse-caregiver mid-upper arm circumference colour classifications was 77% (98/128) immediately after training and 80% after 28 days. These findings lend preliminary support to pursue further study of alternative models of care that allow for greater engagement of caregivers in the clinical and anthropometric surveillance of children with SAM.
    • Malnutrition in Chakradharpur, Jharkhand: an anthropological study of perceptions and care practices from India

      Chaand, I; Horo, M; Nair, M; Harshana, A; Mahajan, R; Kashyap, V; Falero, F; Escruela, M; Burza, S; Dasgupta, R (BioMed Central, 2019-07-02)
      Background This study aims to investigate the knowledge, perception and practices related to health, nutrition, care practices, and their effect on nutrition health-seeking behaviour. Methods In order to have maximum representation, we divided Chakradharpur block in Jharkhand state into three zones (north, south and centre regions) and purposively selected 2 Ambulatory Therapeutic Feeding Centre (ATFC) clusters from each zone, along with 2 villages per ATFC (12 villages from 6 ATFCs in total). In-depth interviews and natural group discussions were conducted with mothers/caregivers, frontline health workers (FHWs), Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF) staff, community representatives, and social leaders from selected villages. Results We found that the community demonstrates a strong dependence on traditional and cultural practices for health care and nutrition for newborns, infants and young children. Furthermore, the community relies on alternative systems of medicine for treatment of childhood illnesses such as malnutrition. The study indicated that there was limited access to and utilization of local health services by the community. Lack of adequate social safety nets, limited livelihood opportunities, inadequate child care support and care, and seasonal male migration leave mothers and caregivers vulnerable and limit proper child care and feeding practices. With respect to continuum of care, services linking care across households to facilities are fragmented. Limited knowledge of child nutrition amongst mothers and caregivers as well as fragmented service provision contribute to the limited utilization of local health services. Government FHWs and MSF field staff do not have a robust understanding of screening methods, referral pathways, and counselling. Additionally, collaboration between MSF and FHWs regarding cases treated at the ATFC is lacking, disrupting the follow up process with discharged cases in the community. Conclusions For caregivers, there is a need to focus on capacity building in the area of child nutrition and health care provision post-discharge. It is also recommended that children identified as having moderate acute malnutrition be supported to prevent them from slipping into severe acute malnutrition, even if they do not qualify for admission at ATFCs. Community education and engagement are critical components of a successful CMAM program.
    • Dietary Intake and Biochemical Indicators and their Association with Wound Healing Process among Adult Burned Patients in the Gaza Strip

      Hammad, SM; Naser, IA; Taleb, MH; Abutair, AS (Enviro Research Publishers, 2019-02-25)
      Burn is a traumatic injury that causes immunological, endocrine, inflammatory, many metabolic responses and emotional stress which can affect dietary, micronutrients and antioxidants intake, which in turn have effects on recovery outcomes. To investigate the role of the nutrition and dietary intake on the progression of the different stages of the healing process among burned patients in Gaza strip. One hundred burned adult patients (36males and 64 females) were enrolled in this cross-sectional clinic-based study at Médecins Sans Frontières/ France clinics in Gaza Strip. Pretested interview questionnaires, Food Frequency Questionnaires, 24 hour dietary recall, anthropometric measures, and biochemical tests were used to assess dietary, health, and healing score among burned patients. This study reported positive association between Magnesium (χ2=8.700, p=0.013), Copper (χ2=60.916, p=<0.0001), and Vitamin C (χ2=91.684, p=<0.0001)) with healing score. The results reported that the protein and energy intake were significantly lower (< 0.001) than the recommendations for both components, which might explain the higher prevalence of moderate healing (65%) among the participants. The adequacy of micronutrients such as Magnesium, Copper, and Vitamin C might be associated with positive wound healing outcomes. Consumption of healthy food is very important for healing process among burned patients. There is a real need for planned and well-balanced meals for burned patients.
    • Feasibility of engaging caregivers in at-home surveillance of children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition

      Isanaka, S; Berthe, F; Nackers, F; Tang, K; Hanson, KE; Grais, RFF (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2019-01-23)
      Many factors can contribute to low coverage of treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM), and a limited number of health facilities and trained personnel can constrain the number of children that receive treatment. Alternative models of care that shift the responsibility for routine clinical and anthropometric surveillance from the health facility to the household could reduce the burden of care associated with frequent facility‐based visits for both healthcare providers and caregivers. To assess the feasibility of shifting clinical surveillance to caregivers in the outpatient management of SAM, we conducted a pilot study to assess caregivers' understanding and retention of key concepts related to the surveillance of clinical danger signs and anthropometric measurement over a 28‐day period. At the time of a child's admission to nutritional treatment, a study nurse provided a short training to groups of caregivers on two topics: (a) clinical danger signs in children with SAM that warrant facility‐based care and (b) methods to measure and monitor their child's mid‐upper arm circumference. Caregiver understanding was assessed using standardized questionnaires before training, immediately after training, and 28 days after training. Knowledge of most clinical danger signs (e.g., convulsions, edema, poor appetite, respiratory distress, and lethargy) was low (0–45%) before training but increased immediately after and was retained 28 days after training. Agreement between nurse–caregiver mid‐upper arm circumference colour classifications was 77% (98/128) immediately after training and 80% after 28 days. These findings lend preliminary support to pursue further study of alternative models of care that allow for greater engagement of caregivers in the clinical and anthropometric surveillance of children with SAM.