• Cetyl-pyridinium chloride is useful for isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputa subjected to long-term storage.

      Pardini, M; Varaine, F; Iona, E; Arzumanian, E; Checchi, F; Oggioni, M R; Orefici, G; Fattorini, L; Dipartimento di Malattie Infettive, Parassitarie e Immunomediate, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. (2005-01)
      Recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputa treated with cetyl-pyridinium chloride (CPC) and stored for 20 +/- 9 days was significantly higher than that from sputa that were untreated and processed by the N-acetyl-L-cisteine-NaOH method. Addition of CPC is useful for isolation of M. tuberculosis from sputa subjected to long-term storage received from remote areas of the world.
    • Field evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection by use of whole blood

      Roddy, P; Goiri, J; Flevaud, L; Palma, P; Morote, S; Lima, N; Villa, L; Torrico, F; Albajar-Vinas, P; Médecins Sans Frontières – Spain, Barcelona, Spain; Centro Universitario de Medicina Tropical - Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Mayor de San Simon, Cochabamba, Bolivia; Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (American Society for Microbiology, 2008-06)
      Laboratory and clinical diagnostic classification of seropositive individuals, followed by treatment and supportive therapy, is an established component of Chagas disease control in endemic areas. However, most Chagas-infected patients live in remote areas where neither equipped laboratories nor skilled human resources are widely available. Employing a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), when using whole blood samples, is the best-option for Chagas disease control. A high sensitivity and specificity for the Chagas Stat-Pak(TM) RDT (Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Medford, NY) has been reported when assayed with serum and plasma but its validity for the detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi infection in whole blood is unknown. This cross-sectional study measured the sensitivity and specificity of the Chagas Stat-Pak(TM) when using whole blood and conventional serological assays as a comparison. The inter-observer reliability in the interpretation of the Chagas Stat-Pak(TM) results and 'ease of use' criterion needed to perform the Chagas Stat-Pak(TM) and conventional assays were also measured. The Chagas Stat-Pak(TM) yielded a high specificity [99.0%, (95%CI: 98.4%-99.4%)] but a relatively low sensitivity [93.4%, (95%CI: 87.4%-97.1%)]. The inter-observer reliability was excellent [kappa(n=1,913)= .999,(p<.0001)] and quantified 'ease of use' criterion suggested that the RDT is simple to perform. Despite the distinguished attributes of the Chagas Stat-Pak(TM), it is not an ideal diagnostic test for the population investigated in this study due to its relatively low sensitivity and high cost. The RDT manufacturer is called upon to improve the test if the international community hopes to make progress in controlling Chagasic infections in endemic areas.
    • Outbreak of hepatitis E virus infection in Darfur, Sudan: effectiveness of real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of dried blood spots

      Mérens, Audrey; Guérin, Philippe Jean; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Nicand, Elisabeth; National Reference Laboratory for Hepatitis E, Hospital Val-de-Grâce, Paris, France; Epicentre, Paris, France (2009-04-01)
      Biological samples collected in refugee camps during an outbreak of hepatitis E were used to compare the accuracy of hepatitis E virus RNA amplification by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for sera and dried blood spots (concordance of 90.6%). Biological profiles (RT-PCR and serology) of asymptomatic individuals were also analyzed.
    • Use of filter paper as a transport medium for laboratory diagnosis of cholera under field conditions

      Page, Anne-Laure; Alberti, Kathryn P; Guénolé, Alain; Mondongue, Vital; Lonlas Mayele, Sylvaine; Guerin, Philippe J; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Epicentre, Paris, France; Institut Pasteur, Centre National de Reference des Vibrions et du Cholera, Unite des Bacteries Pathogenes Enteriques, Paris, France; Ministry of Health, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Medecins Sans Frontieres, Brussels, Belgium; Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (American Society for Microbiology, 2011-06-22)
      Confirmation of a cholera epidemic is based on bacteriological identification of the agent and requires the sending of samples to a culture laboratory, often in countries with limited resources. Comparison of the use of filter paper with the use of Cary-Blair reference medium for stool transport showed that this simple transport medium is appropriate for the recovery of Vibrio cholerae.