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Characterization of the Chromosomal Aminoglycoside 2'-N-Acetyltransferase Gene from Mycobacterium Fortuitum.A novel gene encoding an aminoglycoside 2'-N-acetyltransferase (AAC) was cloned from Mycobacterium fortuitum. DNA sequencing results identified an open reading frame that we have called aac(2')-Ib encoding a putative protein with a predicted molecular mass of 24,800 Da. The deduced AAC(2')-Ib protein showed homology to the AAC(2')-Ia from Providencia stuartii. This is the second member of a subfamily of AAC(2')-I enzymes to be identified. No homology was found with other acetyltransferases, including all of the AAC(3) and AAC(6') proteins. The aac(2')-Ib gene cloned in a mycobacterial plasmid and introduced in Mycobacterium smegmatis conferred resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, dibekacin, netilmicin, and 6'-N-ethylnetilmicin. DNA hybridization with an intragenic probe of aac(2')-Ib showed that this gene was present in all 34 strains of M. fortuitum tested. The universal presence of the aac(2')-Ib gene in M. fortuitum was not correlated with any aminoglycoside resistance phenotype, suggesting that this gene may play a role in the secondary metabolism of the bacterium.
Short Report: Molecular Markers Associated with Plasmodium Falciparum Resistance to Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine in the Democratic Republic of Congo.Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the first line antimalarial treatment in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Using polymerase chain reaction, we assessed the prevalence of mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) (codons 108, 51, 59) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) (codons 437, 540) genes of Plasmodium falciparum, which have been associated with resistance to pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine, respectively. Four hundred seventy-four patients were sampled in Kilwa (N = 138), Kisangani (N = 112), Boende (N = 106), and Basankusu (N = 118). The proportion of triple mutations dhfr varied between sites but was always > 50%. The proportion of dhps double mutations was < 20%, with some sites as low as 0.9%. A quintuple mutation was present in 12.8% (16/125) samples in Kilwa; 11.9% (13/109) in Kisangani, 2.9% (3/102) in Boende, and 0.9% (1/112) in Basankusu. These results suggest high resistance to pyrimethamine alone or combined with sulfadoxine. Adding artesunate to SP does not seem a valid alternative to the current monotherapy.