• Alogliptin: A new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

      Ndefo, U A; Okoli, O; Erowele, G (American Society of Health System Pharmacists, 2014-01-15)
      The pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, efficacy, and place in therapy of alogliptin and its combinations for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus are reviewed.
    • Changes to intellectual property policy in South Africa: putting a stop to evergreening?

      Hill, J E (Informa Healthcare/Expert Reviews, 2014-08)
      South Africa is a middle-income country with the world's largest HIV patient cohort and a growing burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases - a prime location for pharmaceutical companies looking to expand their markets. Yet, 20 years after the country's first democratic elections, poor health indicators and an over-burdened public health system belie persistently stark levels of socioeconomic inequality. As the South African government revises national intellectual property (IP) policies, the pharmaceutical industry and global access to medicines movement are watching, aware of ramifications South Africa's actions will have on patent laws and the availability of generic medicines in other middle-income countries and across Africa. South Africa's draft IP policy is meeting fierce resistance from industry, although proposed reforms are compliant with the Agreement on trade related aspects of intellectual property (TRIPS) and in line with on-going policies and actions of both developing and developed countries. Could the establishment of a patent examination system and new patentability criteria rein in evergreening and lead to lower medicine prices? What will be the potential impact of reform on medical innovation? And why is it both necessary and urgent that the South African government seek a fairer balance between private and public interests?
    • Global trade and access to medicines: AIDS treatments in Thailand.

      Wilson, D; Cawthorne, P; Ford, N; Aongsonwang, S; Médecins Sans Frontières, Bangkok, Thailand. msfbthai@asianet.co.th (Elsevier, 1999-11-27)
    • Paediatric pharmacovigilance: use of pharmacovigilance data mining algorithms for signal detection in a safety dataset of a paediatric clinical study conducted in seven african countries

      Kajungu, D K; Erhart, A; Talisuna, A O; Bassat, Q; Karema, C; Nabasumba, C; Nambozi, M; Tinto, H; Kremsner, P; Meremikwu, M; D'Alessandro, U; Speybroeck, N (Public Library of Science, 2014-05)
      Pharmacovigilance programmes monitor and help ensuring the safe use of medicines which is critical to the success of public health programmes. The commonest method used for discovering previously unknown safety risks is spontaneous notifications. In this study we examine the use of data mining algorithms to identify signals from adverse events reported in a phase IIIb/IV clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of several Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in African children.
    • Substandard medicines in resource-poor settings: A problem that can no longer be ignored

      Caudron, J M; Ford, N; Henkens, M; Macé, C; Kiddle-Monroe, R; Pinel, J; Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland; AEDES Foundation, Brussels, Belgium (2008-07-08)
      The circulation of substandard medicines in the developing world is a serious clinical and public health concern. Problems include under or over concentration of ingredients, contamination, poor quality ingredients, poor stability and inadequate packaging. There are multiple causes. Drugs manufactured for export are not regulated to the same standard as those for domestic use, while regulatory agencies in the less-developed world are poorly equipped to assess and address the problem. A number of recent initiatives have been established to address the problem, most notably the WHO pre-qualification programme. However, much more action is required. Donors should encourage their partners to include more explicit quality requirements in their tender mechanisms, while purchasers should insist that producers and distributors supply drugs that comply with international quality standards. Governments in rich countries should not tolerate the export of substandard pharmaceutical products to poor countries, while developing country governments should improve their ability to detect substandard medicines.