• Global oral cholera vaccine use

      Pezzoli, L; Cavailler, P; Mengel, M; Matzger, H; Lorenson, T; Sur, D; Luquero, F; Grais, RF; Ko, M; Soble, A; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-09-10)
      Vaccination is a key intervention to prevent and control cholera in conjunction with water, sanitation and hygiene activities. An oral cholera vaccine (OCV) stockpile was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2013. We reviewed its use from July 2013 to all of 2018 in order to assess its role in cholera control. We computed information related to OCV deployments and campaigns conducted including setting, target population, timelines, delivery strategy, reported adverse events, coverage achieved, and costs. In 2013–2018, a total of 83,509,941 OCV doses have been requested by 24 countries, of which 55,409,160 were approved and 36,066,010 eventually shipped in 83 deployments, resulting in 104 vaccination campaigns in 22 countries. OCVs had in general high uptake (mean administrative coverage 1st dose campaign at 90.3%; 2nd dose campaign at 88.2%; mean survey-estimated two-dose coverage at 69.9%, at least one dose at 84.6%) No serious adverse events were reported. Campaigns were organized quickly (five days median duration). In emergency settings, the longest delay was from the occurrence of the emergency to requesting OCV (median: 26 days). The mean cost of administering one dose of vaccine was 2.98 USD. The OCV stockpile is an important public health resource. OCVs were generally well accepted by the population and their use demonstrated to be safe and feasible in all settings. OCV was an inexpensive intervention, although timing was a limiting factor for emergency use. The dynamic created by the establishment of the OCV stockpile has played a role in the increased use of the vaccine by setting in motion a virtuous cycle by which better monitoring and evaluation leads to better campaign organization, better cholera control, and more requests being generated. Further work is needed to improve timeliness of response and contextualize strategies for OCV delivery in the various settings.
    • Impact of a mass vaccination campaign against a meningitis epidemic in a refugee camp.

      Haelterman, E; Boelaert, M; Suetens, C; Blok, L; Henkens, M; Toole, M J; Médecins Sans Frontières Belgium, Brussels, Belgium. (Wiley-Blackwell, 1996-06)
      Serogroup A meningococcus epidemics occurred in refugee populations in Zaire in August 1994. The paper analyses the public health impact of a mass vaccination campaign implemented in a large refugee camp. We compared meningitis incidence rates from 2 similar camps. In Kibumba camp, vaccination was implemented early in the course of the epidemic whilst in the control camp (Katale), vaccination was delayed. At a threshold of 15 cases per 100 000 population per week an immunization campaign was implemented. Attack rates were 94 and 134 per 100,000 in Kibumba and Katale respectively over 2 months. In Kibumba, one week after crossing the threshold, 121,588 doses of vaccine were administered covering 76% of all refugees. Vaccination may have prevented 68 cases (30% of the expected cases). Despite its rapid institution and the high coverage achieved, the vaccination campaign had a limited impact on morbidity due to meningitis. In the early phase in refugee camps, the relative priorities of meningitis vaccination and case management need to be better defined.