• Mass Vaccination with a Two-Dose Oral Cholera Vaccine in a Refugee Camp.

      Legros, D; Paquet, C; Perea, W; Marty, I; Mugisha, N K; Royer, H; Neira, M; Ivanoff, B; Epicentre, Kampala, Uganda. (Published by WHO, 1999)
      In refugee settings, the use of cholera vaccines is controversial since a mass vaccination campaign might disrupt other priority interventions. We therefore conducted a study to assess the feasibility of such a campaign using a two-dose oral cholera vaccine in a refugee camp. The campaign, using killed whole-cell/recombinant B-subunit cholera vaccine, was carried out in October 1997 among 44,000 south Sudanese refugees in Uganda. Outcome variables included the number of doses administered, the drop-out rate between the two rounds, the proportion of vaccine wasted, the speed of administration, the cost of the campaign, and the vaccine coverage. Overall, 63,220 doses of vaccine were administered. At best, 200 vaccine doses were administered per vaccination site and per hour. The direct cost of the campaign amounted to US$ 14,655, not including the vaccine itself. Vaccine coverage, based on vaccination cards, was 83.0% and 75.9% for the first and second rounds, respectively. Mass vaccination of a large refugee population with an oral cholera vaccine therefore proved to be feasible. A pre-emptive vaccination strategy could be considered in stable refugee settings and in urban slums in high-risk areas. However, the potential cost of the vaccine and the absence of quickly accessible stockpiles are major drawbacks for its large-scale use.
    • Vaccination in emergencies.

      Paquet, C; Epicentre and Médecins Sans Frontières, 8 rue Saint Sabin, 75011, Paris, France. cpaquet@epicentre.msf.org (1999-10-29)
      Nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) are the main actors of vaccine delivery during complex humanitarian emergencies such as large population displacements. This paper discusses the use of vaccinations against measles, cholera and meningitis in this context. The role of NGOs in the advocacy for making new and more effective vaccines available to the most vulnerable populations is also emphasised.