Browsing Vaccination by Authors
The case for reactive mass oral cholera vaccinationsReyburn, R; Deen, J L; Grais, RF; Bhattacharya, S K; Sur, D; Lopez, A L; Jiddawi, M S; Clemens, J D; von Seidlein, L; International Vaccine Institute (IVI), Seoul, Korea; Epicentre, Paris, France; NICED, Kolkata, India; Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Zanzibar, Tanzania; Menzies School of Health Research, Casuarina, Australia (2011-01-25)The outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe intensified interest in the control and prevention of cholera. While there is agreement that safe water, sanitation, and personal hygiene are ideal for the long term control of cholera, there is controversy about the role of newer approaches such as oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). In October 2009 the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts advised the World Health Organization to consider reactive vaccination campaigns in response to large cholera outbreaks. To evaluate the potential benefit of this pivotal change in WHO policy, we used existing data from cholera outbreaks to simulate the number of cholera cases preventable by reactive mass vaccination.
Global oral cholera vaccine usePezzoli, L; Cavailler, P; Mengel, M; Matzger, H; Lorenson, T; Sur, D; Luquero, F; Grais, RF; Ko, M; Soble, A; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-09-10)Vaccination is a key intervention to prevent and control cholera in conjunction with water, sanitation and hygiene activities. An oral cholera vaccine (OCV) stockpile was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2013. We reviewed its use from July 2013 to all of 2018 in order to assess its role in cholera control. We computed information related to OCV deployments and campaigns conducted including setting, target population, timelines, delivery strategy, reported adverse events, coverage achieved, and costs. In 2013–2018, a total of 83,509,941 OCV doses have been requested by 24 countries, of which 55,409,160 were approved and 36,066,010 eventually shipped in 83 deployments, resulting in 104 vaccination campaigns in 22 countries. OCVs had in general high uptake (mean administrative coverage 1st dose campaign at 90.3%; 2nd dose campaign at 88.2%; mean survey-estimated two-dose coverage at 69.9%, at least one dose at 84.6%) No serious adverse events were reported. Campaigns were organized quickly (five days median duration). In emergency settings, the longest delay was from the occurrence of the emergency to requesting OCV (median: 26 days). The mean cost of administering one dose of vaccine was 2.98 USD. The OCV stockpile is an important public health resource. OCVs were generally well accepted by the population and their use demonstrated to be safe and feasible in all settings. OCV was an inexpensive intervention, although timing was a limiting factor for emergency use. The dynamic created by the establishment of the OCV stockpile has played a role in the increased use of the vaccine by setting in motion a virtuous cycle by which better monitoring and evaluation leads to better campaign organization, better cholera control, and more requests being generated. Further work is needed to improve timeliness of response and contextualize strategies for OCV delivery in the various settings.