Now showing items 21-40 of 146

    • Global Health Education in Germany: An Analysis of Current Capacity, Needs and Barriers

      Kaffes, I; Moser, F; Pham, M; Oetjen, A; Fehling, M (BioMed Central, 2016-11-25)
      In times of increasing global challenges to health, it is crucial to create a workforce capable of tackling these complex issues. Even though a lack of GHE in Germany is perceived by multiple stakeholders, no systematic analysis of the current landscape exists. The aim of this study is to provide an analysis of the global health education (GHE) capacity in Germany as well as to identify gaps, barriers and future strategies.
    • Fighting Poor-Quality Medicines in Low- And Middle-Income Countries: The Importance of Advocacy and Pedagogy

      Ravinetto, R; Vandenbergh, D; Macé, C; Pouget, C; Renchon, B; Rigal, J; Schiavetti, B; Caudron, JM (BioMed Central, 2016-11-10)
      The globalization of pharmaceutical production has not been accompanied by a strengthening and harmonization of the regulatory systems worldwide. Thus, the global market is characterized today by a situation of multiple standards, and patients in low- and middle-income countries are exposed to the risk of receiving poor-quality medicines. Among those who first raised the alarm on this problem, there were pioneering humanitarian groups, who were in a privileged position to witness the gap in quality of medicines between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Despite an increasing awareness of the problem and the launch of some positive initiatives, the divide in pharmaceutical quality between the North and the South remains important, and insufficiently addressed. More advocacy is needed for universal access to quality-assured medicines. It should target all those who are strongly "involved" with medicines: regulators, international organizations, journalists, purchasers, prescribers, program managers, policy makers, public health actors and the patients. Advocacy should be based on evidence from research and monitoring programs, and technical concepts should be translated in lay language through communication tools that address all the stakeholders. The fight to ensure universal access to quality medicines needs the participation of all, and can only be successful if grounded in common understanding.
    • Avoiding Catastrophes: Seeking Synergies Among the Public Health, Environmental Protection, and Human Security Sectors

      Stoett, P; Daszak, P; Romanelli, C; Machalaba, C; Behringer, R; Chalk, F; Cornish, S; Dalby, S; de Souza Dias, BF; Iqbal, Z; Koch, T; Krampe, F; Lo, M; Martin, K; Matthews, K; Nickerson, JW; Orbinski, J; Price-Smith, A; Prieur-Richard, AH; Raja, A; Secko, DM; Suazo, A; Swain, A (Elsevier, 2016-10-04)
    • A Medecins Sans Frontieres Ethics Framework for Humanitarian Innovation Plus Worked Case Studies

      Sheather, J; Jobanputra, K; Schopper, D; Pringle, J; Venis, S; Wong, S; Vincent-Smith, R (2016-10)
    • ReRouting Biomedical Innovation: Observations from a Mapping of the Alternative Research and Development (R&D) Landscape

      Greenberg, A; Kiddell-Monroe, R (BioMed Central (Springer Science), 2016-09-14)
      In recent years, the world has witnessed the tragic outcomes of multiple global health crises. From Ebola to high prices to antibiotic resistance, these events highlight the fundamental constraints of the current biomedical research and development (R&D) system in responding to patient needs globally.To mitigate this lack of responsiveness, over 100 self-identified "alternative" R&D initiatives, have emerged in the past 15 years. To begin to make sense of this panoply of initiatives working to overcome the constraints of the current system, UAEM began an extensive, though not comprehensive, mapping of the alternative biomedical R&D landscape. We developed a two phase approach: (1) an investigation, via the RE:Route Mapping, of both existing and proposed initiatives that claim to offer an alternative approach to R&D, and (2) evaluation of those initiatives to determine which are in fact achieving increased access to and innovation in medicines. Through phase 1, the RE:Route Mapping, we examined 81 initiatives that claim to redress the inequity perpetuated by the current system via one of five commonly recognized mechanisms necessary for truly alternative R&D.Preliminary analysis of phase 1 provides the following conclusions: 1. No initiative presents a completely alternative model of biomedical R&D. 2. The majority of initiatives focus on developing incentives for drug discovery. 3. The majority of initiatives focus on rare diseases or diseases of the poor and marginalized. 4. There is an increasing emphasis on the use of push, pull, pool, collaboration and open mechanisms alongside the concept of delinkage in alternative R&D. 5. There is a trend towards public funding and launching of initiatives by the Global South. Given the RE:Route Mapping's inevitable limitations and the assumptions made in its methodology, it is not intended to be the final word on a constantly evolving and complex field; however, its findings are significant. The Mapping's value lies in its timely and unique insight into the importance of ongoing efforts to develop a new global framework for biomedical R&D. As we progress to phase 2, an evaluation tool for initiatives focused on identifying which approaches have truly achieved increased innovation and access for patients, we aim to demonstrate that there are a handful of initiatives which represent some, but not all, of the building blocks for a new approach to R&D.Through this mapping and our forthcoming evaluation, UAEM aims to initiate an evidence-based conversation around a truly alternative biomedical R&D model that serves people rather than profits.
    • Research & development in the dark: what does it take to make one medicine? And what could it take?

      Reid, J; Balasegaram, M; MSF (2016-08)
      Earlier this year a series of advertisements appeared in London's Westminster tube stations asking viewers to consider a seemingly simple question, 'what does it take to make one medicine?' But as it turns out, this question is not so simple to answer. In this commentary we highlight some key considerations and questions on what it takes to make one medicine, and what it could take to develop medicines that meet people's health needs and are accessible and affordable for all who need them.
    • Demand Forecasting and Order Planning for Humanitarian Logistics: An Empirical Assessment

      van der Laan, E; van Dalen, J; Rohrmoser, M; Simpson, R (Elsevier, 2016-07-15)
      Humanitarian aid organizations are most known for their short-term emergency relief. While getting aid items to those in need can be challenging, long-term projects provide an opportunity for demand planning supported by forecasting methods. Based on standardized consumption data of the Operational Center Amsterdam of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF-OCA) regarding nineteen longer-term aid projects and over 2000 medical items consumed in 2013, we describe and analyze the forecasting and order planning process. We find that several internal and external factors influence forecast and order planning performance, be it indirectly through demand volatility and safety markup. Moreover, we identify opportunities for further improvement for MSF-OCA, and for humanitarian logistics organizations in general.
    • Embedding Telemedicine Quality Assurance Within a Large Organisation

      Wootton, R; Liu, J; Bonnardot, L (Elsevier We regret that this article is behind a paywall., 2016-06-15)
    • Attacks on Civilians and Hospitals Must Stop

      Trelles, M; Stewart, BT; Kushner, AL (Elsevier, 2016-05-01)
      On Oct 3, 2015, a US airstrike hit Médecins Sans Frontières' (MSF's) Kunduz Trauma Centre in Afghanistan; 42 lives, including 14 MSF hospital staff, were lost.1 The 92-bed hospital was the only facility with essential trauma care capabilities for hundreds of thousands of people living in northern Afghanistan; those who continue to live amid conflict will critically miss it. The attack was a violation of international humanitarian law and the Geneva Conventions, a war crime, and an incursion on the sanctity of humanitarian action globally.
    • Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité…Santé

      Baron, E (Elsevier, 2016-05-01)
      “We are not England, we are not France”, said Hillary Clinton about health-care insurance during a recent US presidential debate. European models of health care have their own history in which redistribution forms the cornerstone of social solidarity. Aiming to guarantee social cohesion, France's Etat Providence is rooted in models of a welfare state that developed in Germany and the UK. Ensuring universal health coverage and financed through payroll taxes, and increasingly through a general social contribution on all types of income, French health insurance is characterised by a strong redistributive scheme that benefits the poorest and the most sick.
    • Attacks on Civilians and Hospitals Must Stop

      Trelles, M; Stewart, BT; Kushner, AL (Elsevier, 2016-03-21)
    • Partnerships, Not Parachutists, for Zika Research

      Heymann, DL; Liu, J; Lillywhite, L (Massachusetts Medical Society, 2016-03-09)
    • Saving the World, or Saving One Life at a Time?

      Delaunay, S (Springer, 2016-01-11)
    • Disparity in Market Prices for Hepatitis C Virus Direct-Acting Drugs

      Andrieux-Meyer, Isabelle; Cohn, Jennifer; de Araújo, Evaldo S Affonso; Hamid, Saeed S (Elsevier, 2015-11)
    • Evolving Human Rights and the Science of Antiretroviral Medicine

      Kavanagh, Matthew; Cohn, Jennifer; Mabote, Lynette; Meier, Benjamin Mason; Williams, Brian; Russell, Asia; Sikwese, Kenly; Baker, Brook (Harvard University Press, 2015-06-11)
      Recent years have seen significant advances in the science of using antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) to fight HIV. Where not long ago ARVs were used late in disease to prevent sick people from dying, today people living with HIV can use ARVs to achieve viral suppression early in the course of disease. This article reviews the mounting new scientific evidence of major clinical and prevention ARV benefits. This has changed the logic of the AIDS response, eliminating competition between "treatment" and "prevention" and encouraging early initiation of treatment for individual and public health benefit. These breakthroughs have implications for the health-related human rights duties of States. With medical advance, the "highest attainable standard" of health has taken a leap, and with it the rights obligations of States. We argue that access to early treatment for all is now a core State obligation and restricting access to, or failing to provide accurate information about, it violates both individual and collective rights. In a context of real political and technical challenges, however, in this article we review the policy implications of evolving human rights obligations given the new science. National and international legal standards require action on budget, health and intellectual property policy, which we outline.
    • A Global Biomedical R&D Fund and Mechanism for Innovations of Public Health Importance

      Balasegaram, Manica; Bréchot, Christian; Farrar, Jeremy; Heymann, David; Ganguly, Nirmal; Khor, Martin; Lévy, Yves; Matsoso, Precious; Minghui, Ren; Pécoul, Bernard; Peilong, Liu; Tanner, Marcel; Røttingen, John-Arne (Public Library of Science, 2015-05-11)
      Bernard Pécoul and colleagues call for the establishment of a global biomedical R&D fund as a key priority of the G7 summit in June 2015.
    • Access to healthcare for the most vulnerable migrants: a humanitarian crisis

      Pottie, Kevin; Martin, Jorge Pedro; Cornish, Stephen; Biorklund, Linn Maria; Gayton, Ivan; Doerner, Frank; Schneider, Fabien (BioMed Central (Springer Science), 2015-05-07)
      A series of Médecins Sans Frontières projects for irregular migrants over the past decade have consistently documented high rates of 14 physical and sexual trauma, extortion and mental illness amidst severe healthcare, food, and housing limitations. Complex interventions were needed to begin to address illness and barriers to healthcare and to help restore dignity to the most vulnerable women, children and men. Promising interventions included mobile clinics, use of cultural mediators, coordination with migrant-friendly entities and NGOs and integrating advocacy programs and mental health care with medical services. Ongoing interventions, research and coordination are needed to address this neglected humanitarian crisis.
    • Health in the service of state-building in fragile and conflict affected contexts: an additional challenge in the medical-humanitarian environment

      Philips, Mit; Derderian, Katharine (BioMed Central (Springer Science), 2015-03-29)
      Global health policy and development aid trends also affect humanitarian health work. Reconstruction, rehabilitation and development initiatives start increasingly earlier after crisis, unleashing tensions between development and humanitarian paradigms. Recently, development aid shows specific interest in contexts affected by conflict and fragility, with increasing expectations for health interventions to demonstrate transformative potential, including towards more resilient health systems as a contribution to state-building agendas.
    • Extractive resources and the Ebola economy

      Calain, Philippe (Oxford University Press, 2015-01-13)