• High Proportions of Patients With Advanced HIV Are Antiretroviral Therapy Experienced: Hospitalization Outcomes From 2 Sub-Saharan African Sites

      Ousley, J; Niyibizi, AA; Wanjala, S; Vandenbulcke, A; Kirubi, B; Omwoyo, W; Price, J; Salumu, L; Szumilin, E; Spiers, S; van Cutsem, G; Mashako, M; Mangana, F; Moudarichirou, R; Harrison, R; Kalwangila, T; Lumowo, G; Lambert, V; Maman, D (Oxford University Press, 2018-03-04)
      Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains an important cause of hospitalization and death in low- and middle- income countries. Yet morbidity and in-hospital mortality patterns remain poorly characterized, with prior antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure and treatment failure status largely unknown.
    • HIV Viral Load Monitoring in Resource-Limited Regions: Optional or Necessary?

      Calmy, A; Ford, N; Hirschel, B; Reynolds, S; Lynen, L; Goemaere, E; Garcia de la Vega, F; Perrin, L; Rodriguez, W; Medecins sans Frontieres, Access to Medicines Campaign, Geneva, 1211, Switzerland. acalmy@gmail.com (Published by: Infectious Diseases Society of America, 2007-01-01)
      Although it is a standard practice in high-income countries, determination of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load is not recommended in developing countries because of the costs and technical constraints. As more and more countries establish capacity to provide second-line therapy, and as costs and technological constraints associated with viral load testing decrease, the question of whether determination of the viral load is necessary deserves attention. Viral load testing could increase in importance as a guide for clinical decisions on when to switch to second-line treatment and on how to optimize the duration of the first-line treatment regimen. In addition, the viral load is a particularly useful tool for monitoring adherence to treatment, performing sentinel surveillance, and diagnosing HIV infection in children aged <18 months. Rather than considering viral load data to be an unaffordable luxury, efforts should be made to ensure that viral load testing becomes affordable, simple, and easy to use in resource-limited settings.
    • A Retrospective Survey of HIV Drug Resistance Among Patients 1 Year After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy at 4 Clinics in Malawi

      Wadonda-Kabondo, N.; Hedt, B. L.; van Oosterhout, J. J.; Moyo, K.; Limbambala, E.; Bello, G.; Chilima, B.; Schouten, E.; Harries, A.; Massaquoi, M.; Porter, C.; Weigel, R.; Hosseinipour, M.; Aberle-Grasse, J.; Jordan, M. R.; Kabuluzi, S.; Bennett, D. E. (2012-05)
    • Symptomatic hyperlactatemia: lessons learned using a point-of-care device in a health care center- and nurse-based antiretroviral program in Rwanda.

      van Griensven, J; Atte, E; Reid, T (Published by: Infectious Diseases Society of America and University of Chicago Press, 2008-01-15)
    • Treatment Outcomes Stratified by Baseline Immunological Status Among Young Children Receiving Nonnucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Limited Settings.

      O'Brien, D P; Sauvageot, D; Olson, D; Schaeffer, M; Humblet, P; Pudjades, M; Ellman, T; Zachariah, R; Szumilin, E; Arnould, L; Reid, T; AIDS Working Group, Médecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France. daniel.obrien@amsterdam.msf.org (Published by: Infectious Diseases Society of America, 2007-05-01)
      A study of 568 children aged <5 years who commenced nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings revealed good early outcomes. After 12 months of antiretroviral therapy, survival probability was 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.92), with no significant difference among children stratified on the basis of baseline immunological levels; 62% attained a CD4 cell percentage >25%, and 7% continued to have a CD4 cell percentage <15%.
    • Voluntary Community Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing, Linkage, and Retention in Care Interventions in Kenya: Modeling the Clinical Impact and Cost-effectiveness

      Luong Nguyen, LB; Yazdanpanah, Y; Maman, D; Wanjala, S; Vandenbulcke, A; Price, J; Parker, RA; Hennequin, W; Mendiharat, P; Freedberg, KA (Oxford University Press, 2018-05-08)
      In southwest Kenya, the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is about 25%. Médecins Sans Frontières has implemented a voluntary community testing (VCT) program, with linkage to care and retention interventions, to achieve the Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets by 2017. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions.