• AIDS: patent rights versus patient's rights.

      Chirac, P; von Schoen-Angerer, T; Kasper, T; Ford, N; Médecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France. (Elsevier, 2000-08-05)
    • Directly observed antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials.

      Ford, Nathan; Nachega, Jean B; Engel, Mark E; Mills, Edward J; Médecins Sans Frontières, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa. (2009-11-30)
      BACKGROUND: Directly observed therapy has been recommended to improve adherence for patients with HIV infection who are on highly active antiretroviral therapy, but the benefit and cost-effectiveness of this approach has not been established conclusively. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials of directly observed versus self-administered antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: We did duplicate searches of databases (from inception to July 27, 2009), searchable websites of major HIV conferences (up to July, 2009), and lay publications and websites (March-July, 2009) to identify randomised trials assessing directly observed therapy to promote adherence to antiretroviral therapy in adults. Our primary outcome was virological suppression at study completion. We calculated relative risks (95% CIs), and pooled estimates using a random-effects method. FINDINGS: 12 studies met our inclusion criteria; four of these were done in groups that were judged to be at high risk of poor adherence (drug users and homeless people). Ten studies reported on the primary outcome (n=1862 participants); we calculated a pooled relative risk of 1.04 (95% CI 0.91-1.20, p=0.55), and noted moderate heterogeneity between the studies (I(2)= 53.8%, 95% CI 0-75.7, p=0.0247) for directly observed versus self-administered treatment. INTERPRETATION: Directly observed antiretroviral therapy seems to offer no benefit over self-administered treatment, which calls into question the use of such an approach to support adherence in the general patient population. FUNDING: None.
    • Expanding HIV care in Africa: making men matter.

      Mills, E; Ford, N; Mugyenyi, P; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada V5Z4B4. emills@cfenet.ubc.ca (2009-07-25)
    • First-line and second-line antiretroviral therapy.

      Calmy, A; Pascual, F; Ford, N (Elsevier, 2004)
    • Governments should reduce prices before rationing care.

      Ford, Nathan; Berman, Daniel (2010-03-06)
    • HIV and Tuberculosis in Prisons in Sub-Saharan Africa

      Telisinghe, L; Charalambous, S; Topp, SM; Herce, ME; Hoffmann, CJ; Barron, P; Schouten, EJ; Jahn, A; Zachariah, R; Harries, AD; et al. (Elsevier, 2016-07-14)
      Given the dual epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa and evidence suggesting a disproportionate burden of these diseases among detainees in the region, we aimed to investigate the epidemiology of HIV and tuberculosis in prison populations, describe services available and challenges to service delivery, and identify priority areas for programmatically relevant research in sub-Saharan African prisons. To this end, we reviewed literature on HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan African prisons published between 2011 and 2015, and identified data from only 24 of the 49 countries in the region. Where data were available, they were frequently of poor quality and rarely nationally representative. Prevalence of HIV infection ranged from 2·3% to 34·9%, and of tuberculosis from 0·4 to 16·3%; detainees nearly always had a higher prevalence of both diseases than did the non-incarcerated population in the same country. We identified barriers to prevention, treatment, and care services in published work and through five case studies of prison health policies and services in Zambia, South Africa, Malawi, Nigeria, and Benin. These barriers included severe financial and human-resource limitations and fragmented referral systems that prevent continuity of care when detainees cycle into and out of prison, or move between prisons. These challenges are set against the backdrop of weak health and criminal-justice systems, high rates of pre-trial detention, and overcrowding. A few examples of promising practices exist, including routine voluntary testing for HIV and screening for tuberculosis upon entry to South African and the largest Zambian prisons, reforms to pre-trial detention in South Africa, integration of mental health services into a health package in selected Malawian prisons, and task sharing to include detainees in care provision through peer-educator programmes in Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and South Africa. However, substantial additional investments are required throughout sub-Saharan Africa to develop country-level policy guidance, build human-resource capacity, and strengthen prison health systems to ensure universal access to HIV and tuberculsosis prevention, treatment, and care of a standard that meets international goals and human rights obligations.
    • HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment.

      Goemaere, E; Ford, N; Benatar, S R (Elsevier, 2002-07-06)
    • Improving Treatment Outcome for Children with HIV

      Calmy, Alexandra L; Ford, Nathan; Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines, Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland; Division of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland; Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa (2011-04-19)
    • (The Lancet)red: a missed opportunity.

      Calmy, A; Pascual, F; Shettle, S; de la Vega, F G; Ford, N (Elsevier, 2006-09-23)
    • Preventing HIV-1: lessons from Mwanza and Rakai.

      Matthys, F; Boelaert, M (Elsevier, 1999-05-01)
    • Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and the health-related Millennium Development Goals: time for a public health approach.

      Schouten, Erik J; Jahn, Andreas; Midiani, Dalitso; Makombe, Simon D; Mnthambala, Austin; Chirwa, Zengani; Harries, Anthony D; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Meguid, Tarek; Ben-Smith, Anne; et al. (2011-07-16)
    • Registration problems for antiretrovirals in Africa.

      Ford, N; Darder, M; Médecins Sans Frontières, Khayelitsha, 7784 South Africa. Nathan.FORD@london.msf.org (Elsevier, 2006-03-11)
    • Treatment of AIDS in conflict-affected settings: a failure of imagination.

      Ellman, T; Culbert, H; Torres-Feced, V; Médecins Sans Frontières, London WC1R 5DJ, UK. tom.ellman@msf.org (Elsevier, 2008-02-14)
    • UNITAID can address HCV/HIV co-infection

      von Schoen-Angerer, Tido; Cohn, Jennifer; Swan, Tracy; Piot, Peter (2013-02-23)