• Challenges in the management of disseminated progressive histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in resource-limited settings

      Murphy, Richard A; Gounder, Lilishia; Manzini, Thandekile C; Ramdial, Pratistadevi K; Castilla, Carmen; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S (Oxford University Press, 2015-03-30)
      The diagnosis of histoplasmosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus in southern Africa is complicated by the nonspecific presentation of the disease in this patient group and the unavailability of sensitive diagnostics including antigen assays. Treatment options are also limited due to the unavailability of liposomal amphotericin and itraconazole, and the inability to perform therapeutic drug monitoring further confounds management. We present 3 clinical cases to illustrate the limits of diagnosis and management in the southern African context, and we highlight the need for additional diagnostic tools and treatment options in resource-limited settings.
    • Impact of HIV on the Severity of Buruli Ulcer Disease: Results of a Retrospective Study in Cameroon

      Christinet, Vanessa; Rossel, Ludovic; Serafini, Micaela; Delhumeau, Cecile; Odermatt, Peter; Ciaffi, Laura; Nomo, Alain-Bertrand; Nkemenang, Patrick; Antierens, Annick; Comte, Eric; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2014-04-26)
      Background: Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most common mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy and is particularly frequent in rural West and Central Africa. However, the impact of HIV infection on BU severity and prevalence remains unclear. Methods: This was a retrospective study of data collected at the Akonolinga district hospital, Cameroon, from 1 January 2002 to 27 March 2013. HIV prevalence among BU patients was compared to regional HIV prevalence. Baseline characteristics of BU patients were compared between HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients, and according to CD4 cell count strata in the latter group. BU time-to-healing was assessed in different CD4 count strata and factors associated with BU main lesion size at baseline were identified. Results: HIV prevalence among BU patients was significantly higher than the regional estimated prevalence in each group (children, 4.00% vs 0.68% [P < .001]; men, 17.0% vs 4.7% [P < .001]; women, 36.0% vs 8.0% [P < .001]). HIV-positive individuals had a more severe form of BU with an increased severity in those with a higher level of immunosuppression. Low CD4 cell count was significantly associated with a larger main lesion size (beta-coefficient, -0.50; P = .015; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.91 – 0.10). BU time-to-healing was more than double in patients with a CD4 cell count below 500 cell/mm3 (hazard ratio, 2.39; P = .001, 95% CI, 1.44 - 3.98). Conclusion: HIV-positive patients are at higher risk for BU. HIV-induced immunosuppression appears to have an impact on BU clinical presentation and disease evolution.
    • Routine immediate eye examination at the point of care for diagnosis of AIDS-related Cytomegalovirus Retinitis among patients with a CD4-count < 100 in Myanmar

      Ei, WLSS; Soe, KP; Hilbig, A; Murray, J; Heiden, D (Oxford University Press, 2019-06-14)
      A retrospective review of diagnosis of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) before and after introduction of routine immediate eye examination among AIDS patient in Myanmar with an absolute CD4 T cell count <100 cells/microliter demonstrated an increased detection of CMVR from 1.1% (14/1233) to 10.7% (65/608), an improvement of approximately ten-fold. Diagnosis of CMVR was achieved a mean of 2 days after clinic enrollment.
    • Urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) testing for all HIV patients hospitalized in the medical wards identifies a large proportion of patients with tuberculosis at risk of death

      Huerga, H; Mathabire Rucker, SC; Bastard, M; Mpunga, J; Amoros Quiles, I; Kabaghe, C; Sannino, L; Szumilin, E (Oxford University Press, 2020-12-23)
      Background Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB), the leading cause of death in people with HIV, remains a challenge in resource-limited countries. We assessed TB diagnosis using a strategy that included systematic urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) testing for all HIV patients hospitalized in the medical wards and 6-month mortality according to the LAM result. Methods This prospective, observational study included adult HIV patients hospitalized in the medical wards of a public district hospital in Malawi regardless of their TB symptoms or CD4 count. Each patient had a clinical examination and Alere Determine TB-LAM, sputum microscopy, sputum GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), chest X-ray, and CD4 count were systematically requested. Results Among 387 inpatients, 54% had a CD4<200 cells/µL, 64% had presumptive TB and 90% had ≥1 TB symptom recorded in the medical file. LAM results were available for 99.0% of the patients, microscopy for 62.8% and Xpert for 60.7%. In total, 26.1% (100/383) had LAM-positive results, 48% (48/100) of which were grades 2-4. Any TB laboratory test result was positive in 30.8% (119/387). Among patients with no Xpert result, 28.5% (43/151) were LAM-positive. Cumulative 6-months mortality was 40.1% (151/377): 50.5% (49/97) in LAM-positives and 36.2% (100/276) in LAM-negatives, p=0.013. In multivariable regression analyses, LAM-positive patients had higher risk of mortality than LAM-negatives (aOR: 2.5, 95%CI: 1.1-5.8, p=0.037). Conclusions In resource-limited hospital medical wards with high TB prevalence, a diagnostic strategy including systematic urine-LAM testing for all HIV patients is an easily implementable strategy that identifies a large proportion of patients with TB at risk of death.
    • Urine Lipoarabinomannan Testing for All HIV Patients Hospitalized in Medical Wards Identifies a Large Proportion of Patients With Tuberculosis at Risk of Death.

      Huerga, H; Rucker, SCM; Bastard, M; Mpunga, J; Amoros Quiles, I; Kabaghe, C; Sannino, L; Scumilin, E (Oxford University Press, 2020-12-23)
      Among 387 inpatients, 54% had a CD4 <200 cells/µL, 64% had presumptive TB, and 90% had ≥1 TB symptom recorded in their medical file. LAM results were available for 99.0% of patients, microscopy for 62.8%, and Xpert for 60.7%. In total, 26.1% (100/383) had LAM-positive results, 48% (48/100) of which were grades 2-4. Any TB laboratory test result was positive in 30.8% (119/387). Among patients with no Xpert result, 28.5% (43/151) were LAM-positive. Cumulative 6-month mortality was 40.1% (151/377): 50.5% (49/97) in LAM-positives and 36.2% (100/276) in LAM-negatives (P = .013). In multivariable regression analyses, LAM-positive patients had a higher risk of mortality than LAM-negatives (adjusted odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.8; P = .037).