• Cytomegalovirus retinitis: the neglected disease of the AIDS pandemic.

      Heiden, D; Ford, N; Wilson, D; Rodriguez, W; Margolis, T; Janssens, B; Bedelu, M; Tun, N; Goemaere, E; Saranchuk, P; Sabapathy, K; Smithuis, F; Luyirika, E; Drew, W L; Department of Ophthalmology and Pacific Vision Foundation, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California, United States of America. dheidenpea@yahoo.com (PLoS, 2007-12)
    • The epidemiology of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV: A cross-region global cohort analysis

      Slogrove, AL; Schomaker, M; Davies, MA; Williams, P; Balkan, S; Ben-Farhat, J; Calles, N; Chokephaibulkit, K; Duff, C; Eboua, TF; Kekitiinwa-Rukyalekere, A; Maxwell, N; Pinto, J; Seage, G; Teasdale, CA; Wanless, S; Warszawski, J; Wools-Kaloustian, K; Yotebieng, M; Timmerman, V; Collins, IJ; Goodall, R; Smith, C; Patel, K; Paul, M; Gibb, D; Vreeman, R; Abrams, EJ; Hazra, R; Van Dyke, R; Bekker, LG; Mofenson, L; Vicari, M; Essajee, S; Penazzato, M; Anabwani, G; Q Mohapi, E; N Kazembe, P; Hlatshwayo, M; Lumumba, M; Goetghebuer, T; Thorne, C; Galli, L; van Rossum, A; Giaquinto, C; Marczynska, M; Marques, L; Prata, F; Ene, L; Okhonskaia, L; Rojo, P; Fortuny, C; Naver, L; Rudin, C; Le Coeur, S; Volokha, A; Rouzier, V; Succi, R; Sohn, A; Kariminia, A; Edmonds, A; Lelo, P; Ayaya, S; Ongwen, P; Jefferys, LF; Phiri, S; Mubiana-Mbewe, M; Sawry, S; Renner, L; Sylla, M; Abzug, MJ; Levin, M; Oleske, J; Chernoff, M; Traite, S; Purswani, M; Chadwick, EG; Judd, A; Leroy, V (Public Library of Science, 2018-03-01)
      Globally, the population of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APHs) continues to expand. In this study, we pooled data from observational pediatric HIV cohorts and cohort networks, allowing comparisons of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in "real-life" settings across multiple regions. We describe the geographic and temporal characteristics and mortality outcomes of APHs across multiple regions, including South America and the Caribbean, North America, Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia.
    • Gender differences in survival among adult patients starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a multicentre cohort study.

      Cornell, Morna; Schomaker, Michael; Garone, Daniela Belen; Giddy, Janet; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Lessells, Richard; Maskew, Mhairi; Prozesky, Hans; Wood, Robin; Johnson, Leigh F; Egger, Matthias; Boulle, Andrew; Myer, Landon; Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology & Research, School of Public Health & Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. morna.cornell@uct.ac.za (2012-09)
      Increased mortality among men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been documented but remains poorly understood. We examined the magnitude of and risk factors for gender differences in mortality on ART.
    • HIV prevention, care, and treatment in two prisons in Thailand.

      Wilson, D; Ford, N; Ngammee, V; Chua, A; Kyaw, M K K; Médecins Sans Frontières, Bangkapi, Bangkok, Thailand. (Public Library of Science, 2007-06)
    • HIV treatment in a conflict setting: outcomes and experiences from Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

      Culbert, H; Tu, D; O'Brien, D; Ellman, T; Mills, C; Ford, N; Amisi, T; Chan, K; Venis, S; Médecins Sans Frontières-Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. (Public Library of Science, 2007-05)
    • Life expectancies of South African adults starting antiretroviral treatment: collaborative analysis of cohort studies

      Johnson, Leigh F; Mossong, Joel; Dorrington, Rob E; Schomaker, Michael; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Keiser, Olivia; Fox, Matthew P; Wood, Robin; Prozesky, Hans; Giddy, Janet; Garone, Daniela Belen; Cornell, Morna; Egger, Matthias; Boulle, Andrew; Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Leigh.Johnson@uct.ac.za (Public Library of Science, 2013-04-09)
      Few estimates exist of the life expectancy of HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the life expectancy of patients starting ART in South Africa and compare it with that of HIV-negative adults.
    • Mortality in Patients with HIV-1 Infection Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: A Collaborative Analysis of Prospective Studies

      Boulle, Andrew; Schomaker, Michael; May, Margaret T; Hogg, Robert S; Shepherd, Bryan E; Monge, Susana; Keiser, Olivia; Lampe, Fiona C; Giddy, Janet; Ndirangu, James; Garone, Daniela; Fox, Matthew; Ingle, Suzanne M; Reiss, Peter; Dabis, Francois; Costagliola, Dominique; Castagna, Antonella; Ehren, Kathrin; Campbell, Colin; Gill, M John; Saag, Michael; Justice, Amy C; Guest, Jodie; Crane, Heidi M; Egger, Matthias; Sterne, Jonathan A C (2014-09-09)
      High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America.
    • Public-health and individual approaches to antiretroviral therapy: township South Africa and Switzerland compared.

      Keiser, O; Orrell, C; Egger, M; Wood, R; Brinkhof, M W G; Furrer, H; Van Cutsem, G; Ledergerber, B; Boulle, A; Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. (PLoS, 2008-07-08)
      BACKGROUND: The provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in resource-limited settings follows a public health approach, which is characterised by a limited number of regimens and the standardisation of clinical and laboratory monitoring. In industrialized countries doctors prescribe from the full range of available antiretroviral drugs, supported by resistance testing and frequent laboratory monitoring. We compared virologic response, changes to first-line regimens, and mortality in HIV-infected patients starting HAART in South Africa and Switzerland. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and two HAART programmes in townships of Cape Town, South Africa. We included treatment-naïve patients aged 16 y or older who had started treatment with at least three drugs since 2001, and excluded intravenous drug users. Data from a total of 2,348 patients from South Africa and 1,016 patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study were analysed. Median baseline CD4+ T cell counts were 80 cells/mul in South Africa and 204 cells/mul in Switzerland. In South Africa, patients started with one of four first-line regimens, which was subsequently changed in 514 patients (22%). In Switzerland, 36 first-line regimens were used initially, and these were changed in 539 patients (53%). In most patients HIV-1 RNA was suppressed to 500 copies/ml or less within one year: 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] 95%-97%) in South Africa and 96% (94%-97%) in Switzerland, and 26% (22%-29%) and 27% (24%-31%), respectively, developed viral rebound within two years. Mortality was higher in South Africa than in Switzerland during the first months of HAART: adjusted hazard ratios were 5.90 (95% CI 1.81-19.2) during months 1-3 and 1.77 (0.90-3.50) during months 4-24. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the highly individualised approach in Switzerland, programmatic HAART in South Africa resulted in similar virologic outcomes, with relatively few changes to initial regimens. Further innovation and resources are required in South Africa to both achieve more timely access to HAART and improve the prognosis of patients who start HAART with advanced disease.
    • Uptake of home-based voluntary HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Sabapathy, Kalpana; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Fidler, Sarah; Hayes, Richard; Ford, Nathan; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. kalpana.sabapathy@lshtm.ac.uk (2012-12-04)
      Improving access to HIV testing is a key priority in scaling up HIV treatment and prevention services. Home-based voluntary counselling and testing (HBT) as an approach to delivering wide-scale HIV testing is explored here.
    • Using touchscreen electronic medical record systems to support and monitor national scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Malawi.

      Douglas, Gerald P; Gadabu, Oliver J; Joukes, Sabine; Mumba, Soyapi; McKay, Michael V; Ben-Smith, Anne; Jahn, Andreas; Schouten, Erik J; Landis Lewis, Zach; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Allain, Theresa J; Zachariah, Rony; Berger, Selma D; Harries, Anthony D; Chimbwandira, Frank; Baobab Health Trust, Lilongwe, Malawi. gdouglas@baobabhealth.org (2010-09)