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Outcomes of patients on second- and third-line ART enrolled in ART adherence clubs in Maputo, Mozambique.Objectives: Adherence clubs (AC) offer patient-centred access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) while reducing the burden on health facilities. AC were implemented in a health centre in Mozambique specialising in patients with a history of HIV treatment failure. We explored the impact of AC on retention in care and VL suppression of these patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients enrolled in AC receiving second- or third-line ART. The Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to analyse retention in care in health facility, retention in AC and viral load (VL) suppression (VL < 1000 copies/mL). Predictors of attrition and VL rebound (VL ≥ 1000 copies/mL) were assessed using multivariable proportional hazards regression. Results: The analysed cohort contained 699 patients, median age 40 years [IQR: 35-47], 428 (61%) female and 97% second-line ART. Overall, 9 (1.3%) patients died, and 10 (1.4%) were lost to follow-up. Retention in care at months 12 and 24 was 98.9% (95% CI: 98.2-99.7) and 96.4% (95% CI: 94.6-98.2), respectively. Concurrently, 85.8% (95% CI: 83.1-88.2) and 80.9% (95% CI: 77.8-84.1) of patients maintained VL suppression. No association between predictors and all-cause attrition or VL rebound was detected. Among 90 patients attending AC and simultaneously having VL rebound, 64 (71.1%) achieved VL resuppression, 10 (11.1%) did not resuppress, and 14 (15.6%) had no subsequent VL result. Conclusion: Implementation of AC in Mozambique was successful and demonstrated that patients with a history of HIV treatment failure can be successfully retained in care and have high VL suppression rate when enrolled in AC. Expansion of the AC model in Mozambique could improve overall retention in care and VL suppression while reducing workload in health facilities.