• Errors Generated by a Point-Of-Care CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Analyser: a Retrospective Observational Study in Nine Countries

      Fajardo, E; Metcalf, C; Piriou, E; Gueguen, M; Maman, D; Chaillet, P; Cox, V; Rumaney, MB; Tunggal, S; Kosack, C; et al. (World Health Organization, 2015-09-01)
      To estimate the proportion of invalid results generated by a CD4+ T-lymphocyte analyser used by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in field projects and identify factors associated with invalid results.
    • Tailored HIV programmes and universal health coverage

      Holmes, CB; Rabkin, M; Ford, N; Preko, P; Rosen, S; Ellman, T; Ehrenkranz, P (World Health Organization, 2020-02-01)
      Improvements in geospatial health data and tailored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, prevention and treatment have led to greater microtargeting of the HIV response, based on location, risk, clinical status and disease burden. These approaches show promise for achieving control of the HIV epidemic. At the same time, United Nations Member States have committed to achieving broader health and development goals by 2030, including universal health coverage (UHC). HIV epidemic control will facilitate UHC by averting the need to commit ever-increasing resources to HIV services. Yet an overly targeted HIV response could also distort health systems, impede integration and potentially threaten broader health goals. We discuss current approaches to achieving both UHC and HIV epidemic control, noting potential areas of friction between disease-specific microtargeting and integrated health systems, and highlighting opportunities for convergence that could enhance both initiatives. Examples of these programmatic elements that could be better aligned include: improved information systems with unique identifiers to track and monitor individuals across health services and the life course; strengthened subnational data use; more accountable supply chains that supply a broad range of services; and strengthened community-based services and workforces. We argue that the response both to HIV and to broader health threats should use these areas of convergence to increase health systems efficiency and mitigate the harm of any potential decrease in health funding. Further investments in implementation and monitoring of these programme elements will be needed to make progress towards both UHC and HIV epidemic control.
    • Training clinicians treating HIV to diagnose cytomegalovirus retinitis

      Heiden, David; Tun, NiNi; Maningding, Ernest; Heiden, Matthew; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer; Chan, Khin Nyein; Khizniak, Tamara; Yakubenko, Alexandra; Lewallen, Susan; Keenan, Jeremy D; et al. (World Health Organization, 2014-12-01)
      Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis continues to be a neglected source of blindness in resource-poor settings. The main issue is lack of capacity to diagnose CMV retinitis in the clinical setting where patients receive care and all other opportunistic infections are diagnosed.