• Cascade of HIV Care and Population Biral Suppression in a High-Burden Region of Kenya

      Maman, D; Zeh, C; Mukui, I; Kirubi, B; Masson, S; Opolo, V; Szumilin, E; Riche, B; Etard, JF (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015-07-31)
      Direct measurement of antiretroviral treatment (ART) program indicators essential for evidence-based planning and evaluation - especially HIV incidence, population viral load, and ART eligibility - is rare in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Mortality, AIDS-morbidity, and loss to follow-up by current CD4 cell count among HIV-1-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Africa and Asia: data from the ANRS 12222 collaboration

      Gabillard, Delphine; Lewden, Charlotte; Ndoye, Ibra; Moh, Raoul; Segeral, Olivier; Tonwe-Gold, Besigin; Etard, Jean-François; Pagnaroat, Men; Fournier-Nicolle, Isabelle; Eholié, Serge; et al. (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2013-04-15)
      In resource-limited countries, estimating CD4-specific incidence rates of mortality and morbidity among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may help assess the effectiveness of care and treatment programmes, identify program weaknesses, and inform decisions.
    • Safety of efavirenz in the first trimester of pregnancy: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

      Ford, Nathan; Calmy, Alexandra; Mofenson, Lynne; Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland; Geneva University Hospital, HIV Unit, Service of Infectious Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland; Pediatric, Adolescent and Maternal AIDS Branch, Center for Research for Mothers and Children, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011-11-28)
      Evidence of the risk of birth defects with efavirenz use is limited. We updated a meta-analysis of birth defects in infants with first trimester efavirenz exposure up to July 2011. In 21 studies, there were 39 defects among live births in 1437 women receiving first trimester efavirenz [2.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-3.18]. The relative risk of defects comparing women on efavirenz-based (1290 live births) and nonefavirenz-based regimens (8122 live births) was 0.85 (95% CI 0.61-1.20). One neural tube defect was observed (myelomeningocele), giving an incidence of 0.07% (95% CI 0.002-0.39).
    • Sexually transmitted infections among prison inmates in a rural district of Malawi.

      Zachariah, R; Harries, A D; Chantulo, A; Yadidi, A E; Nkhoma, W; Maganga, O; Mission (Malawi), Medecins sans Frontieres-Luxembourg, 70 rue de Gasperich, L-1617, Luxembourg. zachariah@internet.lu (Elsevier, 2008-02-14)
      As part of a comprehensive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategy targeting high-risk groups, sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics are offered to all prisoners in Thyolo district, southern Malawi. Prison inmates are not, however, allowed access to condoms as it is felt that such an intervention might encourage homosexuality which is illegal in Malawi. A study was conducted between January 2000 and December 2001 in order to determine the prevalence, incidence, and patterns of STIs among male inmates of 2 prisons in this rural district. A total of 4229 inmates were entered into the study during a 2-year period. Of these, 178 (4.2%) were diagnosed with an STI. This included 83 (46%) inmates with urethral discharge, 60 (34%) with genital ulcer disease (GUD), and 35 (20%) inmates with epididymo-orchitis. Fifty (28%) STIs were considered incident cases acquired within the prisons (incidence risk 12 cases/1000 inmates/year). GUD was the most common STI in this group comprising 52% of all STI. This study shows that a considerable proportion of STIs among inmates are acquired within prison. In a setting of same-sex inmates, this suggests inter-prisoner same-sex sexual activity. The findings have implications for HIV transmission and might help in developing more rational policies on STI control and condom access within Malawi prisons.
    • Tuberculosis and the risk of opportunistic infections and cancers in HIV-infected patients starting ART in Southern Africa.

      Fenner, Lukas; Reid, Stewart E; Fox, Matthew P; Garone, Daniela; Wellington, Maureen; Prozesky, Hans; Zwahlen, Marcel; Schomaker, Michael; Wandeler, Gilles; Kancheya, Nzali; et al. (2013-02)
      To investigate the incidence of selected opportunistic infections (OIs) and cancers and the role of a history of tuberculosis (TB) as a risk factor for developing these conditions in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Southern Africa.