• Clinical screening for HIV in a health centre setting in urban Kenya: an entry point for voluntary counselling, HIV testing and early diagnosis of HIV infection?

      Arendt, V; Mossong, J; Zachariah, R; Inwani, C; Farah, B; Robert, I; Waelbrouck, A; Fonck, K; Médecins Sans Frontières, Mission Kenya, Brussels Operational Centre, Brussels, Belgium. (2007-01)
      A study was conducted among patients attending a public health centre in Nairobi, Kenya in order to (a) verify the prevalence of HIV, (b) identify clinical risk factors associated with HIV and (c) determine clinical markers for clinical screening of HIV infection at the health centre level. Of 304 individuals involved in the study,107(35%) were HIV positive. A clinical screening algorithm based on four clinical markers, namely oral thrush, past or present TB, past or present herpes zoster and prurigo would pick out 61 (57%) of the 107 HIV-positive individuals. In a resource-poor setting, introducing a clinical screening algorithm for HIV at the health centre level could provide an opportunity for targeting voluntary counselling and HIV testing, and early access to a range of prevention and care interventions.
    • An investigation into the health-related quality of life of individuals living with HIV who are receiving HAART.

      Jelsma, J; Maclean, E; Hughes, J; Tinise, X; Darder, M; Department of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. jjelsma@uctgsh1.uct.ac.za (2005-07)
      The health authorities have recently accepted the routine provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy to persons living with AIDS in South Africa. There is a need to investigate the impact of HAART on the health-related quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in a resource-poor environment, as this will have an influence on compliance and treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to explore whether HAART is efficacious in improving the self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a group of PWLA in WHO Stages 3 and 4 living in a resource-poor community. A quasi-experimental, prospective repeated measures design was used to monitor the HRQoL over time in participants recruited to an existing HAART programme. The HRQoL of 117 participants was determined through the use of the Xhosa version of the EQ-5D and measurements were taken at baseline, one, six and 12 months. At the time of the 12-month questionnaire, 95 participants had been on HAART for 12 months. Not all participants attended all follow-up visits, but only two participants had withdrawn from the HAART programme, after two or three months. At baseline, the rank order of problems reported in all domains of the EQ-5D was significantly greater than at 12 months. The mean score on the global rating of health status increased significantly (p < 0.001) from a mean of 61.7 (SD = 22.7) at baseline to 76.1 at 12 months (SD = 18.5) It is concluded that, even in a resource-poor environment, HRQoL can be greatly improved by HAART, and that the possible side effects of the drugs seem to have a negligible impact on the wellbeing of the subjects. This bodes well for the anticipated roll-out of HAART within the public health sector in South Africa.
    • The prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and infant feeding practices.

      Hilderbrand, K; Goemaere, E; Coetzee, D; Infectious Diseases and HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town. (2003-10)
      Since the first cases of HIV transmission through breast-feeding were documented, a fierce debate has raged on appropriate guidelines for infant feeding in resource-poor settings. A major problem is determining when it is safe and feasible to formula-feed, as breast-milk protects against other diseases. A cross-sectional survey of 113 women attending the programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, was conducted. Over 95% of women on the programme formula-fed their infants and did not breast-feed at all. Seventy per cent of women said that their infant had never had diarrhoea, and only 3% of children had had two episodes of diarrhoea. Focus groups identified the main reasons for not breast-feeding given by women to their families and those around them. Formula feeding is safe and feasible in an urban environment where sufficient potable water is available.
    • A qualitative investigation of adherence to nutritional therapy in malnourished adult AIDS patients in Kenya

      Dibari, Filippo; Bahwere, Paluku; Le Gall, Isabelle; Guerrero, Saul; Mwaniki, David; Seal, Andrew; Valid International, Oxford, UK; UCL Centre for International Health and Development, Institute of Child Health, London, UK; MSF-France, Nairobi, Kenya/Paris, France; Centre for Public Health, Kenya Medical Research Institute, KEMRI/CPHR, Nairobi, Kenya; Academy for Educational Development/Regional Office for Eastern and Central Africa, Nairobi, Kenya (Cambridge University Press, 2011-02-04)
      To understand factors affecting the compliance of malnourished, HIV-positive adults with a nutritional protocol using ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF; Plumpy'nut®).