• Hepatitis C seroprevalence and HIV co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Rao, V Bhargavi; Johari, Nur; du Cros, Philipp; Messina, Janey; Ford, Nathan; Cooke, Graham S (Elsevier, 2015-05-05)
      An estimated 150 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HIV co-infection accelerates the progression of HCV and represents a major public health challenge. We aimed to determine the epidemiology of HCV and the prevalence of HIV co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • High acceptability of voluntary counselling and HIV-testing but unacceptable loss to follow up in a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme in rural Malawi: scaling-up requires a different way of acting.

      Manzi, M; Zachariah, R; Teck, R; Buhendwa, L; Kazima, J; Bakali, E; Firmenich, P; Humblet, P; Médecins sans Frontières-Luxembourg, Thyolo district, Luxembourg, Malawi. m.manzi@belgacom.net (Wiley-Blackwell, 2005-12)
      SETTING: Thyolo District Hospital, rural Malawi. OBJECTIVES: In a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programme, to determine: the acceptability of offering 'opt-out' voluntary counselling and HIV-testing (VCT); the progressive loss to follow up of HIV-positive mothers during the antenatal period, at delivery and to the 6-month postnatal visit; and the proportion of missed deliveries in the district. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: Review of routine antenatal, VCT and PMTCT registers. RESULTS: Of 3136 new antenatal mothers, 2996 [96%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 95-97] were pre-test counselled, 2965 (95%, CI: 94-96) underwent HIV-testing, all of whom were post-test counselled. Thirty-one (1%) mothers refused HIV-testing. A total of 646 (22%) individuals were HIV-positive, and were included in the PMTCT programme. Two hundred and eighty-eight (45%) mothers and 222 (34%) babies received nevirapine. The cumulative loss to follow up (n=646) was 358 (55%, CI: 51-59) by the 36-week antenatal visit, 440 (68%, CI: 64-71) by delivery, 450 (70%, CI: 66-73) by the first postnatal visit and 524 (81%, CI: 78-84) by the 6-month postnatal visit. This left just 122 (19%, CI: 16-22) of the initial cohort still in the programme. The great majority (87%) of deliveries occurred at peripheral sites where PMTCT was not available. CONCLUSIONS: In a rural district hospital setting, at least 9 out of every 10 mothers attending antenatal services accepted VCT, of whom approximately one-quarter were HIV-positive and included in the PMTCT programme. The progressive loss to follow up of more than three-quarters of this cohort by the 6-month postnatal visit demands a 'different way of acting' if PMTCT is to be scaled up in our setting.
    • High attrition among HIV-infected patients with advanced disease treated in an intermediary referral center in Maputo, Mozambique

      Molfino, Lucas; Kumar, Ajay M V; Isaakidis, Petros; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Khogali, Mohamed; Hinderaker, Sven G; Magaia, Alice; Lobo, Sheila; Gracia Edwards, Celeste; Walter, Jan (Coaction Publishing, 2014-04)
      Background : In Mozambique, antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up has been successfully implemented. However, attrition in care remains a major programmatic challenge. In 2009, an intermediary-level HIV referral center was created in Maputo to ensure access to specialized care for HIV-infected patients with complications (advanced clinical-immunological stage, Kaposi sarcoma, or suspected ART failure). Objective : To determine the attrition from care and to identify risk factors that lead to high attrition among patients referred to an intermediary-level HIV referral center. Design : This was a retrospective cohort study from 2009 to 2011. Results : A total of 1,657 patients were enrolled, 847 (51%) were men, the mean age was 36 years (standard deviation: 11), the mean CD4 count was 27 cells/µl (interquartile range: 11-44), and one-third were severely malnourished. The main reasons for referral were advanced clinical stages (WHO stages 3 and 4, and CD4 count <50 cells/µl) in 70% of the cases, and 19% had Kaposi sarcoma. The overall attrition rate was 28.7 per 100 person-years (PYs) - the mortality rate was 5.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.2-5.9) per 100 PYs, and the loss-to-follow-up rate was 23.7 (95% CI: 21.9-25.6) per 100 PYs. There were 793 attritions - 137 deaths and 656 lost to follow-up (LTFU); 77% of all attrition happened within the first year. The factors independently associated with attrition were male sex (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.0-1.3), low body mass index (aHR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8), WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 (aHR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.0-1.6; and aHR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5), later year of enrollment (aHR 1.61, 95% CI 1.3-1.9), and 'being already on ART' at enrollment (aHR 13.71, 95% CI 11.4-16.4). Conclusions : Attrition rates among HIV-infected patients enrolled in an intermediary referral center were high, mainly related to advanced stage of clinical disease. Measures are required to address this, including innovative strategies for HIV-testing uptake, earlier ART initiation and nutritional supplementation, and special attention to men and those who are already on ART at enrolment. Qualitative research is required to understand the reasons for being LTFU and design informed evidence-based interventions.
    • High incidence of intended partner pregnancy among men living with HIV in rural Uganda: Implications for safer conception services.

      Kaida, A; Kabakyenga, J; Bwana, M; Bajunirwe, F; Mayindike, W; Bennett, K; Kembabazi, A; Haberer, JE; Boum, Y; Martin, JN; Hunt, PW; Bangsberg, DR; Matthews, LT (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2019-04-15)
      Many men with HIV express fertility intentions and nearly half have HIV-uninfected sexual partners. We measured partner pregnancy among a cohort of men accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda. Self-reported partner pregnancy incidence and bloodwork (CD4, HIV-RNA) were collected quarterly. Interviewer-administered questionnaires assessed men's sexual and reproductive health annually and repeated at time of reported pregnancy (2011-2015). We measured partner pregnancy incidence overall, by pregnancy intention, and by reported partner HIV-serostatus. We assessed viral suppression (≤400 copies/mL) during the peri-conception period. Cox proportional hazard regression with repeated events identified predictors of partner pregnancy. Among 189 men, baseline median age was 39.9 years [IQR:34.7,47.0], years on ART was 3.9 [IQR:0.0,5.1], and 51% were virally suppressed. Over 530.2 person-years of follow-up, 63 men reported 85 partner pregnancies (incidence=16.0/100 person-years); 45% with HIV-serodifferent partners. By three years of follow-up, 30% of men reported a partner pregnancy, with no difference by partner HIV-serostatus (p=0.75). 69% of pregnancies were intended, 18% wanted but mis-timed, and 8% unwanted. 78% of men were virally suppressed prior to pregnancy report. Men who were younger (aHR:0.94/year;95%CI:0.89-0.99), had incomplete primary education (aHR:2.95;95%CI:1.36-6.40), and reported fertility desires (aHR:2.25;95%CI:1.04-4.85) had higher probability of partner pregnancy. A high incidence of intended partner pregnancy highlights the need to address men's reproductive goals within HIV care. Nearly half of pregnancy partners were at-risk for HIV and one-quarter of men were not virally suppressed during peri-conception. Safer conception care provides opportunity to support men's health and reproductive goals, while preventing HIV transmission to women and infants.
    • High prevalence of lipoatrophy among patients on stavudine-containing first-line antiretroviral therapy regimens in Rwanda.

      van Griensven, J; De Naeyer, L; Mushi, T; Ubarijoro, S; Gashumba, D; Gazille, C; Zachariah, R; Médecins Sans Frontières, Kimihurura, Kacyiru, 1361 Kigali, Rwanda. jvgrie@yahoo.com <jvgrie@yahoo.com> (Elsevier, 2007-08)
      This study was conducted among individuals placed on WHO-recommended first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) at two urban health centres in Kigali, Rwanda, in order to determine (a) the overall prevalence of lipodystrophy and (b) the risk factors for lipoatropy. Consecutive individuals on ART for >1 year were systematically subjected to a standardised case definition-based questionnaire and clinical assessment. Of a total of 409 individuals, 370 (90%) were on an ART regimen containing stavudine (d4T), whilst the rest were receiving a zidovudine (AZT)-containing regimen. Lipodystrophy was apparent in 140 individuals (34%), of whom 40 (9.8%) had isolated lipoatrophy, 20 (4.9%) had isolated lipohypertrophy and 80 (19.6%) had mixed patterns. Fifty-six percent of patients reported the effects as disturbing. The prevalence of lipoatrophy was more than three times higher when taking d4T compared with AZT-containing regimens (31.4% vs. 10.3%). Being female, d4T-based ART, baseline body mass index >or=25 kg/m(2) or baseline CD4 count >or=150 cells/microl and increasing duration of ART were all significantly associated with lipoatrophy. Lipoatrophy appears to be an important long-term complication of WHO-recommended first-line ART regimens. These data highlight the urgent need for access to more affordable and less toxic ART regimens in resource-limited settings.
    • High Proportions of Patients With Advanced HIV Are Antiretroviral Therapy Experienced: Hospitalization Outcomes From 2 Sub-Saharan African Sites

      Ousley, J; Niyibizi, AA; Wanjala, S; Vandenbulcke, A; Kirubi, B; Omwoyo, W; Price, J; Salumu, L; Szumilin, E; Spiers, S; van Cutsem, G; Mashako, M; Mangana, F; Moudarichirou, R; Harrison, R; Kalwangila, T; Lumowo, G; Lambert, V; Maman, D (Oxford University Press, 2018-03-04)
      Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains an important cause of hospitalization and death in low- and middle- income countries. Yet morbidity and in-hospital mortality patterns remain poorly characterized, with prior antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure and treatment failure status largely unknown.
    • High rate of virological re-suppression among patients failing second-line antiretroviral therapy following enhanced adherence support: A model of care in Khayelitsha, South Africa

      Garone, D B; Conradie, K; Patten, G; Cornell, M; Goemaere, E; Kunene, J; Kerschberger, B; Ford, N; Boulle, A; Van Cutsem, G (Health and Medicine Publishing Group, 2013-12)
    • High rates of active hepatitis B and C co-infections in HIV-1 infected Cameroonian adults initiating antiretroviral therapy

      Laurent, C; Bourgeois, A; Mpoudi-Ngolé, E; Kouanfack, C; Ciaffi, L; Nkoué, N; Mougnutou, R; Calmy, A; Koulla-Shiro, S; Ducos, J; Delaporte, E; Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, University Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France; Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University Hospital, Montpellier, France; Military Hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon; Central Hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon; Medecins Sans Frontieres, Geneva, Switzerland; Laboratory of Viral Hepatitis, University Hospital, Montpellier, France (2009-07-29)
      OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Cameroon. METHODS: Baseline blood samples from 169 patients were tested retrospectively for hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc), anti-HCV and - if HBsAg or anti-HCV result was positive or indeterminate - for HBV DNA or HCV RNA, respectively, using the Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan quantitative assay (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). RESULTS: HBV DNA was detected in 14 of the 18 patients with positive or indeterminate HBsAg results [8.3% of the total study population, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6-13.5]. The median HBV viral load was 2.47 x 10(7) IU/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 3680-1.59 x 10(8); range 270 to >2.2 x 10(8)]. Twenty-one patients (12.4%, 95% CI 7.9-18.4) were found with HCV RNA (all with positive HCV serology). The median HCV viral load was 928 000 IU/mL (IQR 178 400-2.06 x 10(6); range 640-5.5 x 10(6)). No patient was co-infected with HBV and HCV. In multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection was associated with greater age [>or=45 years vs. <45 years, odds ratio (OR) 11.89, 95% CI 3.49-40.55, P<0.001] and abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase level [>or=1.25 x upper limit of normal (ULN) vs. <1.25 x ULN, OR 7.81, 95% CI 1.54-39.66, P=0.01]; HBV co-infection was associated with abnormal serum aspartate aminotransferase level (OR 4.33, 95% CI 1.32-14.17, P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: These high rates of active HBV and HCV co-infections in HIV-positive Cameroonian patients requiring antiretroviral therapy underline the need to promote: (i) screening for HBV and HCV before treatment initiation; (ii) accessibility to tenofovir (especially in HBV-endemic African countries); and (iii) accessibility to treatment for HBV and HCV infections.
    • High Rates of Retention and Viral Suppression in the Scale-Up of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Clubs in Cape Town, South Africa

      Tsondai, P; Wilkinson, L; Grimsrud, A; Mdlalo, P; Ullauri, A; Boulle, A (International AIDS Society, 2017-07-21)
      Increasingly, there is a need for health authority scale up of successfully piloted differentiated models of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery. However, there is a paucity of evidence on system-wide outcomes after scale-up. In the Cape Town health district, stable adult patients were referred to adherence clubs (ACs) - a group model of ART delivery with five visits per year. By the end of March 2015, over 32,000 ART patients were in an AC. We describe patient outcomes of a representative sample of AC patients during this scale-up.
    • High survival and treatment success sustained after two and three years of first-line ART for children in Cambodia.

      Isaakidis, Petros; Raguenaud, Marie-Eve; Te, Vantha; Tray, Chhraing S; Akao, Kazumi; Kumar, Varun; Ngin, Sopheak; Nerrienet, Eric; Zachariah, Rony; Médecins Sans Frontières, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. petrosisaakidis@yahoo.com. (2010-04)
      ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children remain poorly documented in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study was to assess two-and three-year survival, CD4 evolution and virological response among children on ART in a programmatic setting in Cambodia. METHODS: Children treated with first-line ART for at least 24 months were assessed with viral load testing and genotyping. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis for survival and Cox regression to identify risk factors associated with treatment failure. RESULTS: Of 1168 registered HIV-positive children, 670 (57%) started ART between January 2003 and December 2007. Survival probability was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.95) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.88-0.93) at 24 and 36 months after ART initiation, respectively. Median CD4 gain for children aged over five years was 704 cells/mm3 at 24 months and 737 at 36 months. Median CD4 percentage gain for children under five years old was 15.2% at 24 months and 15% at 36 months. One hundred and thirty children completed at least 24 months of ART, and 138 completed 36 months: 128 out of 268 (48%) were female. Median age at ART initiation was six years.Overall, 22 children had viral loads of >1000 copies/ml (success ratio = 86% on intention-to-treat-analysis) and 21 of 21 presented mutations conferring resistance mostly to lamivudine and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Risk factors for failure after 24 and 36 months were CD4 counts below the threshold for severe immunosupression at those months respectively. Only two out of 22 children with viral loads of >1000 copies/ml met the World Health Organization immunological criteria for failure (sensitivity = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Good survival, immunological restoration and viral suppression can be sustained after two to three years of ART among children in resource-constrained settings. Increased access to routine virological measurements is needed for timely diagnosis of treatment failure.
    • Higher Art Adherence is Associated with Lower Systemic Inflammation in Treatment-Naïve Ugandans Who Achieve Virologic Suppression

      Castillo-Mancilla, JR; Morrow, M; Boum, Y; Byakwaga, H; Haberer, JE; Martin, JN; Bangsberg, D; Mawhinney, S; Musinguzi, N; Huang, Y; Tracy, RP; Burdo, TH; Williams, K; Muzoora, C; Hunt, PW; Siedner, MJ (Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott; Williams & Wilkins, 2018-01-16)
      Residual systemic inflammation persists despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is associated with non-AIDS clinical outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the association between ART adherence and inflammation in Ugandans living with HIV who were predominantly receiving nevirapine-based ART with a thymidine analog backbone and were virologically suppressed by conventional assays.
    • Higher risk Sexual Behaviour is associated with Unawareness of HIV-positivity and lack of Viral Suppression - implications for Treatment as Prevention

      Huerga, H; Venables, E; Ben-Farhat, J; van Cutsem, G; Ellman, T; Kenyon, C (Nature Publishing Group, 2017-11-23)
      Efficacy of Treatment as Prevention Strategy depends on a variety of factors including individuals' likelihood to test and initiate treatment, viral load and sexual behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that people with higher risk sexual behaviour are less likely to know their HIV-positive status and be virologically suppressed. A cross-sectional population-based survey of individuals aged 15-59 years old was conducted in 2013 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A two-stage cluster probability sampling was used. After adjustment for age and sex, lack of awareness of HIV-positivity was strongly associated with having more than one sexual partner in the preceding year (aOR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.5-3.1). Inconsistent condom use was more common in individuals with more than one sexual partner (aOR: 16.6, 95%CI: 7.6-36.7) and those unaware (aOR: 3.7, 95%CI: 2.6-5.4). Among people aware of their HIV-positivity, higher risk sexual behaviour was associated with lack of viral suppression (aOR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.5). Risky sexual behaviour seems associated with factors linked to poor health-seeking behaviour which may have negative implications for HIV testing and Treatment as Prevention. Innovative strategies, driven by improved epidemiological and anthropological understanding, are needed to enable comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention.
    • Highly active antiretroviral therapy in resource-poor settings: the experience of Medecins Sans Frontieres

      Tassie, J M; Szumilin, E; Calmy, A; Goemaere, E; Medecins Sans Fronteres (2003-09)
      We describe the short-term results of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in seven projects in low and middle income countries. A total of 743 adults were included, and clinical, immunological and virological responses were analysed. At 6 months, outcomes were similar to those observed in western countries, and the probability of remaining on treatment was 94%. The challenge now is to extend access to HAART to the millions in urgent need.
    • Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Poor Settings: The Experience of Médecins Sans Frontières.

      Tassie, J M; Szumilin, E; Calmy, A; Goemaere, E; Epicentre, Paris, France. (2003-09-05)
      We describe the short-term results of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in seven projects in low and middle income countries. A total of 743 adults were included, and clinical, immunological and virological responses were analysed. At 6 months, outcomes were similar to those observed in western countries, and the probability of remaining on treatment was 94%. The challenge now is to extend access to HAART to the millions in urgent need.
    • HIV and cytomegalovirus in Thailand.

      Chua, A; Wilson, D; Ford, N (Elsevier, 2005-06)
    • HIV and Tuberculosis in Prisons in Sub-Saharan Africa

      Telisinghe, L; Charalambous, S; Topp, SM; Herce, ME; Hoffmann, CJ; Barron, P; Schouten, EJ; Jahn, A; Zachariah, R; Harries, AD; Beyrer, C; Amon, JJ (Elsevier, 2016-07-14)
      Given the dual epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa and evidence suggesting a disproportionate burden of these diseases among detainees in the region, we aimed to investigate the epidemiology of HIV and tuberculosis in prison populations, describe services available and challenges to service delivery, and identify priority areas for programmatically relevant research in sub-Saharan African prisons. To this end, we reviewed literature on HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan African prisons published between 2011 and 2015, and identified data from only 24 of the 49 countries in the region. Where data were available, they were frequently of poor quality and rarely nationally representative. Prevalence of HIV infection ranged from 2·3% to 34·9%, and of tuberculosis from 0·4 to 16·3%; detainees nearly always had a higher prevalence of both diseases than did the non-incarcerated population in the same country. We identified barriers to prevention, treatment, and care services in published work and through five case studies of prison health policies and services in Zambia, South Africa, Malawi, Nigeria, and Benin. These barriers included severe financial and human-resource limitations and fragmented referral systems that prevent continuity of care when detainees cycle into and out of prison, or move between prisons. These challenges are set against the backdrop of weak health and criminal-justice systems, high rates of pre-trial detention, and overcrowding. A few examples of promising practices exist, including routine voluntary testing for HIV and screening for tuberculosis upon entry to South African and the largest Zambian prisons, reforms to pre-trial detention in South Africa, integration of mental health services into a health package in selected Malawian prisons, and task sharing to include detainees in care provision through peer-educator programmes in Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and South Africa. However, substantial additional investments are required throughout sub-Saharan Africa to develop country-level policy guidance, build human-resource capacity, and strengthen prison health systems to ensure universal access to HIV and tuberculsosis prevention, treatment, and care of a standard that meets international goals and human rights obligations.
    • HIV and tuberculosis--science and implementation to turn the tide and reduce deaths.

      Harries, Anthony D; Lawn, Stephen D; Getahun, Haileyesus; Zachariah, Rony; Havlir, Diane V; International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France. adharries@theunion.org (2012-10)
      Every year, HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) deprives 350,000 mainly young people of productive and healthy lives.People die because TB is not diagnosed and treated in those with known HIV infection and HIV infection is not diagnosed in those with TB. Even in those in whom both HIV and TB are diagnosed and treated, this often happens far too late. These deficiencies can be addressed through the application of new scientific evidence and diagnostic tools.
    • HIV care need not hamper maternity care: a descriptive analysis of integration of services in rural Malawi

      van den Akker, T; Bemelmans, M; Ford, N; Jemu, M; Diggle, E; Scheffer, S; Zulu, I; Akesson, A; Shea, J; Thyolo District Health Office, Ministry of Health, Thyolo, Malawi; Médecins Sans Frontières, Thyolo Project, Thyolo, Malawi; Child Health Unit, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Médecins Sans Frontières Operational Centre Brussels, Brussels, Belgium; Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland; Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012-01-18)
      Please cite this paper as: van den Akker T, Bemelmans M, Ford N, Jemu M, Diggle E, Scheffer S, Zulu I, Akesson A, Shea J. HIV care need not hamper maternity care: a descriptive analysis of integration of services in rural Malawi. BJOG 2012;119:431-438. Objective  To evaluate the use of reproductive health care and incidence of paediatric HIV infection during the expansion of antiretroviral therapy and services for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in rural Malawi, and the influence of integration of these HIV-related services into general health services. Design  Descriptive analysis. Setting  Thyolo District, with a population of 600 000, an HIV prevalence of 21% and a total fertility rate of 5.7 in 2004. Population  Women attending reproductive health services care in 2005 and 2010. Methods  Review of facility records and databases for routine monitoring. Main outcome measures  Use of antenatal, intrapartum, postpartum, family planning and sexually transmitted infection services; incidence of HIV infection in infants born to mothers who received prevention of mother-to-child transmission care. Results  There was a marked increase in the uptake of perinatal care: pregnant women in 2010 were 50% more likely to attend at least one antenatal visit (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.48-1.51); were twice as likely to deliver at a healthcare facility (RR 2.05, 95% CI 2.01-2.08); and were more than four times as likely to present for postpartum care (RR 4.40, 95% CI 4.25-4.55). Family planning consultations increased by 40% and the number of women receiving treatment for sexually transmitted infections doubled. Between 2007 and 2010, the number of HIV-exposed infants who underwent testing for HIV went up from 421 to 1599/year, and the proportion testing positive decreased from 13.3 to 5.0%; infants were 62% less likely to test HIV positive (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.27-0.52). Conclusions  During the expansion and integration of HIV care, the use of reproductive health services increased and the outcomes of infants born to HIV-infected mothers improved. HIV care may be successfully integrated into broader reproductive health services.
    • HIV drug resistance.

      Calmy, A; Pascual, F; Ford, N (Massachusetts Medical Society, 2004-06-24)