• Paediatric HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa: clinical presentation and 2-year outcomes stratified by age group

      Ben-Farhat, Jihane; Gale, Marianne; Szumilin, Elisabeth; Balkan, Suna; Poulet, Elisabeth; Pujades-Rodríguez, Mar (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2013-09)
      To examine age differences in mortality and programme attrition amongst paediatric patients treated in four African HIV programmes.
    • Paediatric HIV testing beyond the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Cohn, Jennifer; Whitehouse, Katherine; Tuttle, Julia; Lueck, Kristin; Tran, Trang (2016-10)
      Many HIV-positive children in low-income and middle-income countries remain undiagnosed. Although HIV testing in children at health facilities is recommended by WHO, it is not well implemented. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the case-finding benefit of HIV screening in children aged 0-5 years in low-income and middle-income countries.
    • Paediatric HIV Treatment Failure: A Silent Epidemic

      Bernheimer, Jonathan M; Patten, Gem; Makeleni, Thembisa; Mantangana, Nompumelelo; Dumile, Nombasa; Goemaere, Eric; Cox, Vivian (International AIDS Society, 2015-07-23)
      Paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure is an under-recognized issue that receives inadequate attention in the field of paediatrics and within HIV treatment programmes. With paediatric ART failure rates ranging from 19.3% to over 32% in resource limited settings, a comprehensive evaluation of the causes of failure along with approaches to address barriers to treatment adherence are urgently needed. In partnership with the local Department of Health, a pilot programme has been established by Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) in Khayelitsha, South Africa, to identify and support paediatric HIV patients with high viral loads and potential treatment failure. Through detailed clinical and psychosocial evaluations and adherence support with an innovative counselling model, treatment barriers are identified and addressed. Demographic and clinical characteristics from the cohort show a delayed median start date for ART, prolonged viraemia including a large number of patients who have never achieved viral load (VL) suppression, a low rate of regimen changes despite failure, and a high percentage of pre-adolescent and adolescent patients who have not gone through the disclosure process. Stemming this epidemic of paediatric treatment failure requires programmatic responses to high viral loads in children, starting with improved "case finding" of previously undiagnosed HIV-infected children and adolescents. Viral load testing needs to be prioritized over CD4 count monitoring, and flagging systems to identify high VL results should be developed in clinics. Clinicians must understand that successful treatment begins with good adherence, and that simple adherence support strategies can often dramatically improve adherence. Moreover, appropriate adherence counselling should begin not when the child fails to respond to treatment. Establishing good adherence from the beginning of treatment, and supporting ongoing adherence during the milestones in these children's lives is key to sustaining treatment success in this vulnerable HIV-infected patient population.
    • The Partec CyFlow Counter could provide an option for CD4+ T-cell monitoring in the context of scaling-up antiretroviral treatment at the district level in Malawi.

      Fryland, M; Chaillet, P; Zachariah, R; Barnaba, A; Bonte, L; Andereassen, R; Charrondière, S; Teck, R; Didakus, O; Médecins sans Frontières-Luxembourg, Thyolo District, Malawi. (Elsevier, 2006-10)
      A study was conducted in rural Malawi to verify (a) whether the Partec CyFlow Counter((R)) for CD4+ T-cell lymphocyte counting in HIV-positive individuals could be introduced into a district hospital laboratory and (b) whether it would produce CD4 counts of acceptable quality. CD4+ cell counting was performed using the Partec CyFlow Counter and the results were compared with a reference method (FACsCount). A total of 311 blood samples were analysed and the correlation coefficient for the CyFlow Counter was 0.92 (95% CI 0.89-0.95). Mean CD4 counts using the Partec and the reference methods were 308.2 cells/microl and 316.9 cells/microl, respectively. The mean difference in CD4 count values was -8.68 cells/microl (95% CI -18.8 to 1.4). Mean intra-run variation was -6.84 cells/microl (95% CI -12.9 to 0.79). In the district laboratory setting, the instrument could accommodate up to 75 blood samples per technician per day. After being trained, local laboratory staff found the CyFlow Counter procedures simple to run and the instrument easy to manipulate. The Partec CyFlow Counter produces sufficiently reliable results and the instrument appears robust under field conditions. It could provide a new option for introducing routine CD4+ cell monitoring at the district level in the context of scaling-up antiretroviral therapy in Malawi.
    • Patient needs and point-of-care requirements for HIV load testing in resource-limited settings

      Usdin, Martine; Guillerm, Martine; Calmy, Alexandra; Medecins Sans Frontieres Access Campaign, Paris, France; University of Liverpool School of Public Health, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Department of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland (2010-04-15)
      Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) is an international, independent medical nongovernmental organization. One way in which MSF acts to improve patient care is to assist in the identification and development of adapted and appropriate tools for use in resource-limited settings. One strategy to achieve this goal is through active collaborations with scientists and developers, to make some of the field needs known and to help define the medical strategy behind the implementation of new diagnostic tests. Tests used in the field need to be effective in often extreme conditions and must also deliver high-quality, reliable results that can be used in the local context. In this article, we discuss some patient and health care provider needs for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load measurement in resource-limited settings. This is just one of the areas in which effective, quality tools are desperately needed, not only by MSF and other international nongovernmental organizations, but also by many other health service providers. We hope that, by clearly defining the needs of patients in MSF clinics-as well as we can assess this-and by explaining why these tools are needed, how they should perform, and how their results can be integrated into a program, we will encourage the development of such tools and hasten their implementation in areas where they are so urgently needed.
    • Patient retention and attrition on antiretroviral treatment at district level in rural Malawi.

      Massaquoi, M; Zachariah, R; Manzi, M; Pasulani, O; Misindi, D; Mwagomba, B; Bauernfeind, A; Harries, A D; Médecins Sans Frontières, Thyolo District, Thyolo, Malawi. (Published by Elsevier, 2009-06)
      We report on rates of patient retention and attrition in the context of scaling-up antiretroviral treatment (ART) within a district hospital and its primary health centres in rural Malawi. 'Retention' was defined as being alive and on ART or transferred out, whereas 'attrition' was defined as died, lost to follow-up or stopped treatment. A total of 4074 patients were followed-up for 1803 person-years: 2904 were at the hospital and 1170 at health centres. Approximately 85% of patients were retained in care, both at hospital and health centres, with a retention rate per 100 person-years of 185 and 211, respectively [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.18, 95% CI 1.10-1.28, P=0.001). Attrition rates per 100 person-years were similar: 33 and 36, respectively (adjusted HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.97-1.4, P=0.1). At health centres the incidence of loss to follow-up was significantly lower than at the hospital (adjusted HR 0.24, P<0.001, risk reduction 77%), but the rate of reported deaths was higher at health centres (adjusted HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.76-2.72, P<0.001). As Malawi continues to extend the coverage (and equity) of ART, including in rural areas, attention is needed to reduce losses to follow-up at hospital level and reduce mortality at primary care level.
    • Payment for antiretroviral drugs is associated with a higher rate of patients lost to follow-up than those offered free-of-charge therapy in Nairobi, Kenya.

      Zachariah, R; Van Engelgem, I; Massaquoi, M; Kocholla, L; Manzi, M; Suleh, A; Philips, M; Borgdorff, M; Médecins Sans Frontières - Brussels, Medical Department (Operational Research), 68 Rue de Gasperich, L-1617, Luxembourg. (Elsevier, 2008-03)
      This retrospective analysis of routine programme data from Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya shows the difference in rates of loss to follow-up between a cohort that paid 500 shillings/month (approximately US$7) for antiretroviral drugs (ART) and one that received medication free of charge. A total of 435 individuals (mean age 31.5 years, 65% female) was followed-up for 146 person-years: 265 were in the 'payment' cohort and 170 in the 'free' cohort. The incidence rate for loss to follow-up per 100 person-years was 47.2 and 20.5, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio 2.27, 95% CI 1.21-4.24, P=0.01). Overall risk reduction attributed to offering ART free of charge was 56.6% (95% CI 20.0-76.5). Five patients diluted their ART regimen to one tablet (instead of two tablets) twice daily in order to reduce the monthly cost of medication by half. All these patients were from the payment cohort. Payment for ART is associated with a significantly higher rate of loss to follow-up, as some patients might be unable to sustain payment over time. In resource-limited settings, ART should be offered free of charge in order to promote treatment compliance and prevent the emergence of drug resistance.
    • Pediatric Access and Continuity of HIV Care Before the Start of Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa

      Bastard, M; Poulet, E; Nicolay, N; Szumilin, E; Balkan, S; Pujades-Rodriguez, M (Wolters Kluwer, 2016-09-01)
      The number of HIV-infected children starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) has increased in resource-limited settings during the past decades. However, there are still few published data on the characteristics of pediatric patients at program enrolment and on the dynamics of dropping out before the start of ART.
    • Perceived adherence barriers among patients failing second-line antiretroviral therapy in Khayelitsha, South Africa

      Barnett, W; Patten, G; Kerschberger, B; Conradie, K; Garone, DB; Van Cutsem, G; Colvin, CJ (Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2013-12)
    • Performance of FASTPlaqueTB and a modified protocol in a high HIV prevalence community in South Africa.

      Trollip, A P; Albert, H; Mole, R; Marshall, T; van Cutsem, G; Coetzee, D; Biotec Laboratories South Africa Ltd, Cape Town, South Africa. andre.trollip@bioteclabs.co.za (2009-06)
      Modifications in the FASTPlaqueTB test protocol have resulted in an increase in the analytical limits of detection. This study investigated whether the performance of a modified prototype was able to increase the detection of smear-negative, culture-positive sputum samples as compared to the first generation FASTPlaqueTB test. Modifications to the FASTPlaqueTB did result in increased detection of smear-negative samples, but this was associated with a decrease in the specificity of the test. Before the FASTPlaqueTB can be considered as a viable replacement for smear microscopy and culture for the identification of tuberculosis, further work is required to resolve the performance issues identified in this study.
    • Plasma Concentrations, Efficacy and Safety of Efavirenz in HIV-Infected Adults Treated for Tuberculosis in Cambodia (ANRS 1295-CIPRA KH001 CAMELIA Trial).

      Borand, Laurence; Madec, Yoann; Laureillard, Didier; Chou, Monidarin; Marcy, Olivier; Pheng, Phearavin; Prak, Narom; Kim, Chindamony; Lak, Khemarin Kim; Hak, Chanroeun; Dim, Bunnet; Nerrienet, Eric; Fontanet, Arnaud; Sok, Thim; Goldfeld, Anne E; Blanc, François-Xavier; Taburet, Anne-Marie (Public Library of Science, 2014)
      To assess efavirenz plasma concentrations and their association with treatment efficacy and tolerance of efavirenz 600 mg daily in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients.
    • Pooled HIV-1 Viral Load Testing Using Dried Blood Spots to Reduce the Cost of Monitoring Antiretroviral Treatment in a Resource-Limited Setting

      Pannus, Pieter; Fajardo, Emmanuel; Metcalf, Carol; Coulborn, Rebecca M; Durán, Laura T; Bygrave, Helen; Ellman, Tom; Garone, Daniela; Murowa, Michael; Mwenda, Reuben; Reid, Tony; Preiser, Wolfgang; *Médecins Sans Frontières, Southern Africa Medical Unit, Cape Town, South Africa; †Médecins Sans Frontières, Thyolo, Malawi; ‡Ministry of Health, Health Technical Support Services, Diagnostics, District Management Office, Thyolo, Malawi; §Ministry of Health, Lilongwe, Malawi; ‖Médecins Sans Frontières, Operational Research Unit, Brussels, Belgium; and ¶Division of Medical Virology, Stellenbosch University, and National Health Laboratory Service, Tygerberg, South Africa. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013-10-01)
      : Rollout of routine HIV-1 viral load monitoring is hampered by high costs and logistical difficulties associated with sample collection and transport. New strategies are needed to overcome these constraints. Dried blood spots from finger pricks have been shown to be more practical than the use of plasma specimens, and pooling strategies using plasma specimens have been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce costs. This study found that combination of finger-prick dried blood spots and a pooling strategy is a feasible and efficient option to reduce costs, while maintaining accuracy in the context of a district hospital in Malawi.
    • Population Differences in Death Rates in HIV-Positive Patients with Tuberculosis.

      Ciglenecki, I; Glynn, J R; Mwinga, A; Ngwira, B; Zumla, A; Fine, P E M; Nunn, A; Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland. iza_ciglenecki@yahoo.com (International Union Against TB and Lung Disease, 2007-10)
      SETTING: Randomised controlled clinical trial of Mycobacterium vaccae vaccination as an adjunct to anti-tuberculosis treatment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients with smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) in Lusaka, Zambia, and Karonga, Malawi. OBJECTIVE: To explain the difference in mortality between the two trial sites and to identify risk factors for death among HIV-positive patients with TB. DESIGN: Information on demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiographic characteristics was collected. Patients in Lusaka (667) and in Karonga (84) were followed up for an average of 1.56 years. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to assess differences in survival between the two sites and to determine risk factors associated with mortality during and after anti-tuberculosis treatment. RESULTS: The case fatality rate was 14.7% in Lusaka and 21.4% in Karonga. The hazard ratio for death comparing Karonga to Lusaka was 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-2.4) during treatment and 1.76 (95%CI 1.0-3.0) after treatment. This difference could be almost entirely explained by age and more advanced HIV disease among patients in Karonga. CONCLUSION: It is important to understand the reasons for population differences in mortality among patients with TB and HIV and to maximise efforts to reduce mortality.
    • Population-level HIV incidence estimates using a combination of synthetic cohort and recency biomarker approaches in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

      Grebe, E; Welte, A; Johnson, LF; van Cutsem, G; Puren, A; Ellman, T; Etard, JF; Huerga, H (Public Library of Science, 2018-09-13)
      There is a notable absence of consensus on how to generate estimates of population-level incidence. Incidence is a considerably more sensitive indicator of epidemiological trends than prevalence, but is harder to estimate. We used a novel hybrid method to estimate HIV incidence by age and sex in a rural district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    • Positive spill-over effects of ART scale up on wider health systems development: evidence from Ethiopia and Malawi

      Rasschaert, Freya; Pirard, Marjan; Philips, Mit P; Atun, Rifat; Wouters, Edwin; Assefa, Yibeltal; Criel, Bart; Schouten, Erik J; Van Damme, Wim (2011)
    • Potential Impact of Multiple Interventions on HIV Incidence in a Hyperendemic Region in Western Kenya: a Modelling Study

      Blaizot, S; Maman, D; Riche, B; Mukui, I; Kirubi, B; Ecochard, R; Etard, JF (BioMed Central, 2016-04-29)
      Multiple prevention interventions, including early antiretroviral therapy initiation, may reduce HIV incidence in hyperendemic settings. Our aim was to predict the short-term impact of various single and combined interventions on HIV spreading in the adult population of Ndhiwa subcounty (Nyanza Province, Kenya).
    • Predictors of Raised Viral Load during Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients with and without Prior Antiretroviral Use: A Cross-Sectional Study

      Greig, Jane E.; du Cros, Philipp A; Mills, Clair; Ugwoeruchukwu, Wilfred; Etsetowaghan, Andrew; Grillo, Adetola; Tayo-Adetoro, Adetoro; Omiyale, Kunle; Spelman, Tim; O'Brien, Daniel P.; Manson Unit, Médecins Sans Frontières, London, United Kingdom. jane.greig@london.msf.org (PLoS, 2013-08-14)
      In Lagos, Nigeria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and the Ministry of Health (MoH) commenced free antiretroviral treatment (ART) in a hospital-based clinic. We performed a cross-sectional study to compare factors associated with raised viral load between patients with ("experienced") and without ("naïve") prior antiretroviral (ARV) exposure at commencement of ART at the clinic. We also examined factors influencing ARV adherence in experienced patients prior to clinic entry.
    • Preferred antiretroviral drugs for the next decade of scale up

      Andrieux-Meyer, Isabelle; Calmy, Alexandra; Cahn, Pedro; Clayden, Polly; Raguin, Gilles; Katlama, Christine; Vitoria, Marco; Levin, Andrew; Lynch, Sharonann; Goemaere, Eric; Ford, Nathan; Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland. (2012-09-18)
      Global commitments aim to provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) to 15 million people living with HIV by 2015, and recent studies have demonstrated the potential for widespread ART to prevent HIV transmission. Increasingly, countries are adapting their national guidelines to start ART earlier, for both clinical and preventive benefits. To maximize the benefits of ART in resource-limited settings, six key principles need to guide ART choice: simplicity, tolerability and safety, durability, universal applicability, affordability and heat stability. Currently available drugs, combined with those in late-stage clinical development, hold great promise to simplify treatment in the short term. Over the longer-term, newer technologies, such as long-acting formulations and nanotechnology, could radically alter the treatment paradigm. This commentary reviews recommendations made in an expert consultation on treatment scale up in resource-limited settings.
    • Prevalence, risk factors, and impact on outcome of cytomegalovirus replication in serum of Cambodian HIV-infected patients (2004-2007)

      Micol, Romain; Buchy, Philippe; Guerrier, Gilles; Duong, Veasna; Ferradini, Laurent; Dousset, Jean-Philippe; Guerin, Philippe J; Balkan, Suna; Galimand, Julie; Chanroeun, Hak; Lortholary, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Fontanet, Arnaud; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Unité d'Epidémiologie des Maladies Emergentes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France; Laboratoire de Virologie, Universite Rene Descartes, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France; Unite de virologie, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Medecins Sans Frontieres, Hopital Prea Bath Norodom Sihanouk, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Medecins Du Monde, Hopital Kosamak, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Epicentre, Paris, France; Medecins Sans Frontieres, Paris, France; Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hopital Calmette, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Universite Rene Descartes, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre d’Infectiologie Necker–Pasteur, Hopital Necker–Enfants Malades, Paris, France (2009-08-01)
      BACKGROUND: In developing countries, the study of cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection in HIV-infected patients remains neglected. Quantitative CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold standard diagnostic tool for analyzing serum CMV replication and for predicting CMV disease. We estimated the prevalence of replicating CMV in sera of newly diagnosed HIV-infected Cambodian patients and examined its impact on mortality. METHODS: This cohort study was based on 2 highly active antiretroviral therapy treatment programs in Cambodia between 2004 and 2007. Quantitative CMV PCR was performed on baseline serum samples of 377 HIV-infected patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of serum CMV DNA was 55.2% (150 of 272) in patients with CD4 count <100/mm. In multivariate analysis, hemoglobin <9 g/dL, CD4 count <100/mm, and Karnofsky index <50 were independently associated with positive serum CMV DNA at baseline. During a 3-year follow-up period, CMV viral load >or=3.1 log10 copies per milliliter was significantly associated with death independently of CD4 count, other opportunistic infections, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: As in industrialized countries, serum CMV replication is highly prevalent among HIV-infected Cambodian patients and is associated with increased mortality. This underscores the importance of diagnostic CMV infection by PCR in sera of HIV-infected patients with CD4 count <100/mm and treating this opportunistic infection to reduce its associated mortality.
    • Preventing HIV-1: lessons from Mwanza and Rakai.

      Matthys, F; Boelaert, M (Elsevier, 1999-05-01)