• Adherence to a Six-Dose Regimen of Artemether-Lumefantrine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in Uganda.

      Fogg, C; Bajunirwe, F; Piola, P; Biraro, S; Checchi, F; Kiguli, J; Namiiro, P; Musabe, J; Kyomugisha, A; Guthmann, J P; et al. (Published by: American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2004-11)
      Measuring baseline levels of adherence and identifying risk factors for non-adherence are important steps before the introduction of new antimalarials. In Mbarara in southwestern Uganda, we assessed adherence to artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem) in its latest World Health Organization blister formulation. Patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were prescribed artemether-lumefantrine and received an explanation of how to take the following five doses at home. A tablet count was made and a questionnaire was completed during a home visit. Among 210 analyzable patients, 21 (10.0%) were definitely or probably non-adherent, whereas 189 (90.0%) were probably adherent. Age group was not associated with adherence. Lack of formal education was the only factor associated with non-adherence after controlling for confounders (odds ratio = 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-9.7). Mean lumefantrine blood levels were lower among non-adherent (n = 16) (2.76 microg/mL, 95% CI = 1.06-4.45) than among adherent (n = 171) (3.19 microg/mL, 95% CI = 2.84-3.54) patients, but this difference was not statistically significant. The high adherence to artemether-lumefantrine found in our study suggest that this drug is likely to be very effective in Mbarara provided that patients receive clear dosage explanations.
    • Falciparum Malaria and Climate Change in the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan.

      Bouma, M J; Dye, C; van der Kaay, H J; Medecins Sans Frontieres-Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. (Published by: American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1996-08)
      Following a striking increase in the severity of autumnal outbreaks of Plasmodium falciparum during the last decade in the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, the role of climatologic variables was investigated. A multivariate analysis showed that during the transmission season of P. falciparum, the amount of rainfall in September and October, the temperature in November and December, and the humidity in December were all correlated (r2 = 0.82) with two measures of P. falciparum, the falciparum rate (percent of slides examined positive for P. falciparum) since 1981 and the annual P. falciparum proportion (percent of all malaria infections diagnosed as P. falciparum) since 1978. Climatologic records since 1876 show an increase in mean November and December temperatures by 2 degrees C and 1.5 degrees C, respectively, and in October rainfall. Mean humidity in December has also been increasing since 1950. These climatologic changes in the area appear to have made conditions for transmission of P. falciparum more favorable, and may account for the increase in incidence observed in the NWFP in recent years.
    • High Efficacy of Two Artemisinin-Based Combinations (Artesunate + Amodiaquine and Artemether + Lumefantrine) in Caala, Central Angola.

      Guthmann, J P; Cohuet, S; Rigutto, C; Fortes, F; Saraiva, N; Kiguli, J; Kyomuhendo, J; Francis, M; Noël, F; Mulemba, M; et al. (Published by: American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2006-07)
      In April 2004, 137 children 6-59 months of age with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria (Caala, Central Angola) were randomized to receive either artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem) or artesunate + amodiaquine (ASAQ). After 28 days of follow-up, there were 2/61 (3.2%) recurrent parasitemias in the Coartem group and 4/64 (6.2%) in the ASAQ group (P = 0.72), all classified as re-infections after PCR genotyping (cure rate = 100% [95%CI: 94-100] in both groups). Only one patient (ASAQ group) had gametocytes on day 28 versus five (Coartem) and three (ASAQ) at baseline. Compared with baseline, anemia was significantly improved after 28 days of follow-up in both groups (Coartem: from 54.1% to 13.4%; ASAQ: from 53.1% to 15.9%). Our findings are in favor of a high efficacy of both combinations in Caala. Now that Coartem has been chosen as the new first-line anti-malarial, the challenge is to insure that this drug is available and adequately used.
    • Short Report: Association Between Chloroquine and Amodiaquine Resistance and Allelic Variation in the Plasmodium Falciparum Multiple Drug Resistance 1 Gene and the Chloroquine Resistance Transporter Gene in Isolates from the Upper Nile in Southern Sudan.

      Ochong, E; van den Broek, I; Keus, K; Nzila, A; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Wellcome Trust Collaborative Program, Médecins sans Frontières-Holland, South Sudan Section, Nairobi, Kenya. (Published by: American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2003-08)
      Amodiaquine, a 4-aminoquinoline compound, is being considered as an alternative to chloroquine and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine where resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to both drugs has been selected. Although amodiaquine is more potent than chloroquine, its effectiveness is reduced in areas where chloroquine resistance is high. We report an association of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene and the P. falciparum multiple drug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) gene, two chloroquine resistance markers, with chloroquine and amodiaquine efficacy in vivo in southern Sudan. The data show that the allele of the pfcrt gene with a lysine to threonine change at codon 76 is strongly associated with both chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance. No such association was observed with the pfmdr1 gene.