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Short Report: Association Between Chloroquine and Amodiaquine Resistance and Allelic Variation in the Plasmodium Falciparum Multiple Drug Resistance 1 Gene and the Chloroquine Resistance Transporter Gene in Isolates from the Upper Nile in Southern Sudan.Amodiaquine, a 4-aminoquinoline compound, is being considered as an alternative to chloroquine and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine where resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to both drugs has been selected. Although amodiaquine is more potent than chloroquine, its effectiveness is reduced in areas where chloroquine resistance is high. We report an association of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene and the P. falciparum multiple drug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) gene, two chloroquine resistance markers, with chloroquine and amodiaquine efficacy in vivo in southern Sudan. The data show that the allele of the pfcrt gene with a lysine to threonine change at codon 76 is strongly associated with both chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance. No such association was observed with the pfmdr1 gene.