• Early biting and insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles might compromise the effectiveness of vector control intervention in Southwestern Uganda

      Ojuka, Patrick; Boum, Yap; Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Nabasumba, Carolyn; Muller, Yolanda; Okia, Michael; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Debeaudrap, Pierre; Protopopoff, Natacha; Etard, Jean-François (BioMed Central, 2015-04-09)
      Southwestern Uganda has high malaria heterogeneity despite moderate vector control and other interventions. Moreover, the early biting transmission and increased resistance to insecticides might compromise strategies relying on vector control. Consequently, monitoring of vector behaviour and insecticide efficacy is needed to assess the effectiveness of strategies aiming at malaria control. This eventually led to an entomological survey in two villages with high malaria prevalence in this region.
    • The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on the incidence and prevalence of malaria in children in an area of unstable seasonal transmission in western Myanmar

      Smithuis, Frank M; Kyaw, Moe Kyaw; Phe, U Ohn; van der Broek, Ingrid; Rogers, Colin; Almeida, Patrick; Kager, Piet A; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lubell, Yoel; Simpson, Julie A; et al. (BioMed Central, 2013-10-11)
      Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) reduce malaria morbidity and mortality consistently in Africa, but their benefits have been less consistent in Asia. This study's objective was to evaluate the malaria protective efficacy of village-wide usage of ITN in Western Myanmar and estimate the cost-effectiveness of ITN compared with extending early diagnosis and treatment services.
    • Effectiveness of five artemisinin combination regimens with or without primaquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria: an open-label randomised trial

      Smithuis, Frank; Kyaw, Moe Kyaw; Phe, Ohn; Win, Thein; Aung, Pyay Phyo; Oo, Aung Pyay Phyo; Naing, Arkar Linn; Nyo, Mya Yee; Myint, Naing Zaw Htun; Imwong, Mallika; et al. (2010-09-09)
      BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) is recommended as first-line treatment of falciparum malaria throughout the world, and fixed-dose combinations are preferred by WHO; whether a single gametocytocidal dose of primaquine should be added is unknown. We aimed to compare effectiveness of four fixed-dose ACTs and a loose tablet combination of artesunate and mefloquine, and assess the addition of a single gametocytocidal dose of primaquine. METHODS: In an open-label randomised trial in clinics in Rakhine state, Kachin state, and Shan state in Myanmar (Burma) between Dec 30, 2008, and March 20, 2009, we compared the effectiveness of all four WHO-recommended fixed-dose ACTs (artesunate-mefloquine, artesunate-amodiaquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, artemether-lumefantrine) and loose artesunate-mefloquine in Burmese adults and children. Eligible patients were those who presented to the clinics with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria or mixed infection, who were older than 6 months, and who weighed more than 5 kg. Treatments were randomised in equal numbers within blocks of 50 and allocation was in sealed envelopes. All patients were also randomly assigned to receive either a single dose of primaquine 0·75 mg base/kg or not. Patients were followed up for 63 days. Treatment groups were compared by analysis of variance and multiple logistic regression. The primary outcome was the 63 day recrudescence rate. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT00902811. FINDINGS: 155 patients received artesunate-amodiaquine, 162 artemether-lumefantrine, 169 artesunate-mefloquine, 161 loose artesunate-mefloquine, and 161 dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. By day 63 of follow-up, 14 patients (9·4%; 95% CI 5·7-15·3%) on artesunate-amodiaquine had recrudescent P falciparum infections, a rate significantly higher than for artemether-lumefantrine (two patients; 1·4%; 0·3-5·3; p=0·0013), fixed-dose artesunate-mefloquine (0 patients; 0-2·3; p<0·0001), loose artesunate-mefloquine (two patients; 1·3%; 0·3-5·3; p=0·0018), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (two patients 1·3%; 0·3-5·2%; p=0·0012). Hazard ratios for re-infection (95% CI) after artesunate-amodiaquine were 3·2 (1·3-8·0) compared with the two artesunate-mefloquine groups (p=0·01), 2·6 (1·0-6-0) compared with artemether-lumefantrine (p=0·04), and 2·3 (0·9-6·0) compared with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (p=0·08). Mixed falciparum and vivax infections were common: 129 (16%) had a mixed infection at presentation and 330 (41%) patients had one or more episodes of Plasmodium vivax infection during follow-up. The addition of a single dose of primaquine (0·75 mg/kg) reduced P falciparum gametocyte carriage substantially: rate ratio 11·9 (95% CI 7·4-20·5). All regimens were well tolerated. Adverse events were reported by 599 patients, most commonly vomiting and dizziness. Other side-effects were less common and were not related to a specific treatment. INTERPRETATION: Artesunate-amodiaquine should not be used in Myanmar, because the other ACTs are substantially more effective. Artesunate-mefloquine provided the greatest post-treatment suppression of malaria. Adding a single dose of primaquine would substantially reduce transmission potential. Vivax malaria, not recurrent falciparum malaria, is the main complication after treatment of P falciparum infections in this region. FUNDING: Médecins sans Frontières (Holland) and the Wellcome Trust Mahidol University Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Programme.
    • Effectiveness of seasonal malaria chemoprevention at scale in west and central Africa: an observational study

      Coldiron, M; Grais, R; ACCESS-SMC Partnership (Elsevier, 2020-12-05)
      Background Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) aims to prevent malaria in children during the high malaria transmission season. The Achieving Catalytic Expansion of SMC in the Sahel (ACCESS-SMC) project sought to remove barriers to the scale-up of SMC in seven countries in 2015 and 2016. We evaluated the project, including coverage, effectiveness of the intervention, safety, feasibility, drug resistance, and cost-effectiveness. Methods For this observational study, we collected data on the delivery, effectiveness, safety, influence on drug resistance, costs of delivery, impact on malaria incidence and mortality, and cost-effectiveness of SMC, during its administration for 4 months each year (2015 and 2016) to children younger than 5 years, in Burkina Faso, Chad, The Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria. SMC was administered monthly by community health workers who visited door-to-door. Drug administration was monitored via tally sheets and via household cluster-sample coverage surveys. Pharmacovigilance was based on targeted spontaneous reporting and monitoring systems were strengthened. Molecular markers of resistance to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine and amodiaquine in the general population before and 2 years after SMC introduction was assessed from community surveys. Effectiveness of monthly SMC treatments was measured in case-control studies that compared receipt of SMC between patients with confirmed malaria and neighbourhood-matched community controls eligible to receive SMC. Impact on incidence and mortality was assessed from confirmed outpatient cases, hospital admissions, and deaths associated with malaria, as reported in national health management information systems in Burkina Faso and The Gambia, and from data from selected outpatient facilities (all countries). Provider costs of SMC were estimated from financial costs, costs of health-care staff time, and volunteer opportunity costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated as the total cost of SMC in each country divided by the predicted number of cases averted. Findings 12 467 933 monthly SMC treatments were administered in 2015 to a target population of 3 650 455 children, and 25 117 480 were administered in 2016 to a target population of 7 551 491. In 2015, among eligible children, mean coverage per month was 76·4% (95% CI 74·0–78·8), and 54·5% children (95% CI 50·4–58·7) received all four treatments. Similar coverage was achieved in 2016 (74·8% [72·2–77·3] treated per month and 53·0% [48·5–57·4] treated four times). In 779 individual case safety reports over 2015–16, 36 serious adverse drug reactions were reported (one child with rash, two with fever, 31 with gastrointestinal disorders, one with extrapyramidal syndrome, and one with Quincke's oedema). No cases of severe skin reactions (Stevens-Johnson or Lyell syndrome) were reported. SMC treatment was associated with a protective effectiveness of 88·2% (95% CI 78·7–93·4) over 28 days in case-control studies (2185 cases of confirmed malaria and 4370 controls). In Burkina Faso and The Gambia, implementation of SMC was associated with reductions in the number of malaria deaths in hospital during the high transmission period, of 42·4% (95% CI 5·9 to 64·7) in Burkina Faso and 56·6% (28·9 to 73·5) in The Gambia. Over 2015–16, the estimated reduction in confirmed malaria cases at outpatient clinics during the high transmission period in the seven countries ranged from 25·5% (95% CI 6·1 to 40·9) in Nigeria to 55·2% (42·0 to 65·3) in The Gambia. Molecular markers of resistance occurred at low frequencies. In individuals aged 10–30 years without SMC, the combined mutations associated with resistance to amodiaquine (pfcrt CVIET haplotype and pfmdr1 mutations [86Tyr and 184Tyr]) had a prevalence of 0·7% (95% CI 0·4–1·2) in 2016 and 0·4% (0·1–0·8) in 2018 (prevalence ratio 0·5 [95% CI 0·2–1·2]), and the quintuple mutation associated with resistance to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (triple mutation in pfdhfr and pfdhps mutations [437Gly and 540Glu]) had a prevalence of 0·2% (0·1–0·5) in 2016 and 1·0% (0·6–1·6) in 2018 (prevalence ratio 4·8 [1·7–13·7]). The weighted average economic cost of administering four monthly SMC treatments was US$3·63 per child. Interpretation SMC at scale was effective in preventing morbidity and mortality from malaria. Serious adverse reactions were rarely reported. Coverage varied, with some areas consistently achieving high levels via door-to-door campaigns. Markers of resistance to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine and amodiaquine remained uncommon, but with some selection for resistance to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine, and the situation needs to be carefully monitored. These findings should support efforts to ensure high levels of SMC coverage in west and central Africa.
    • Efficacy and effectiveness of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus artesunate-mefloquine in falciparum malaria: an open-label randomised comparison.

      Smithuis, F; Kyaw, M K; Phe, O; Aye, K Z; Htet, L; Barends, M; Lindegardh, N; Singtoroj, T; Ashley, E A; Lwin, S; et al. (Elsevier, 2006-06-24)
      BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combinations are judged the best treatments for multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Artesunate-mefloquine is widely recommended in southeast Asia, but its high cost and tolerability profile remain obstacles to widespread deployment. To assess whether dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is a suitable alternative to artesunate-mefloquine, we compared the safety, tolerability, efficacy, and effectiveness of the two regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum in western Myanmar (Burma). METHODS: We did an open randomised comparison of 3-day regimens of artesunate-mefloquine (12/25 mg/kg) versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (6.3/50 mg/kg) for the treatment of children aged 1 year or older and in adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Rakhine State, western Myanmar. Within each group, patients were randomly assigned supervised or non-supervised treatment. The primary endpoint was the PCR-confirmed parasitological failure rate by day 42. Failure rates at day 42 were estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN27914471. FINDINGS: Of 652 patients enrolled, 327 were assigned dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (156 supervised and 171 not supervised), and 325 artesunate-mefloquine (162 and 163, respectively). 16 patients were lost to follow-up, and one patient died 22 days after receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Recrudescent parasitaemias were confirmed in only two patients; the day 42 failure rate was 0.6% (95% CI 0.2-2.5) for dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and 0 (0-1.2) for artesunate-mefloquine. Whole-blood piperaquine concentrations at day 7 were similar for patients with observed and non-observed dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine treatment. Gametocytaemia developed more frequently in patients who had received dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine than in those on artesunate-mefloquine: day 7, 18 (10%) of 188 versus five (2%) of 218; relative risk 4.2 (1.6-11.0) p=0.011. INTERPRETATION: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is a highly efficacious and inexpensive treatment of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria and is well tolerated by all age groups. The effectiveness of the unsupervised treatment, as in the usual context of use, equalled its supervised efficacy, indicating good adherence without supervision. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is a good alternative to artesunate-mefloquine.
    • Efficacy and effectiveness of the combination of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and a 3-day course of artesunate for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in a refugee settlement in Zambia.

      Depoortere, E; Guthmann, J P; Pressé, J; Sipilanyambe, N; Nkandu, E; Balkan, S; de Pécoulas, P E; Legros, D; Epicentre, 8 rue Saint Sabin, 75011 Paris, France. evelyn.depootere@brussels.msf.org (Wiley-Blackwell, 2005-02)
      In the Maheba Refugee Settlement, in the clinics supported by Medecins Sans Frontieres, all children aged up to 5 years with a confirmed diagnosis of uncomplicated falciparum malaria are treated with the combination of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) and artesunate (AS). We compared the treatment's efficacy and effectiveness. Patients were randomized in order to receive the treatment supervised (efficacy) or unsupervised (effectiveness). Therapeutic response was determined after 28 days of follow up. The difference between recrudescence and re-infection was ascertained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We also assessed genetic markers associated to SP resistance (dhfr and dhps). Eighty-five patients received treatment under supervision and 84 received it unsupervised. On day 28, and after PCR adjustment, efficacy was found to be 83.5% (95% CI: 74.1-90.5), and effectiveness 63.4% (95% CI: 52.6-73.3) (P < 0.01). Point mutations on dhfr (108) and dhps (437) were found for 92.0% and 44.2% respectively of the PCR samples analysed. The significant difference in therapeutic response after supervised and unsupervised treatment intake can only be explained by insufficient patient adherence. When implementing new malaria treatment policies, serious investment in ensuring patient adherence is essential to ascertain the effectiveness of the new treatment schedules.
    • Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine compared with quinine in pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial

      Piola, Patrice; Nabasumba, Carolyn; Turyakira, Eleanor; Dhorda, Mehul; Lindegardh, Niklas; Nyehangane, Dan; Snounou, Georges; Ashley, Elizabeth A; McGready, Rose; Nosten, Francois; et al. (2010-10-05)
      BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is associated with maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In 2006, WHO recommended use of artemisinin-based combination treatments during the second or third trimesters, but data on efficacy and safety in Africa were scarce. We aimed to assess whether artemether-lumefantrine was at least as efficacious as oral quinine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in Mbarara, Uganda. METHODS: We did an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial between October, 2006, and May, 2009, at the antenatal clinics of the Mbarara University of Science and Technology Hospital in Uganda. Pregnant women were randomly assigned (1:1) by computer generated sequence to receive either quinine hydrochloride or artemether-lumefantrine, and were followed up weekly until delivery. Our primary endpoint was cure rate at day 42, confirmed by PCR. The non-inferiority margin was a difference in cure rate of 5%. Analysis of efficacy was for all randomised patients without study deviations that could have affected the efficacy outcome. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00495508. FINDINGS: 304 women were randomly assigned, 152 to each treatment group. By day 42, 16 patients were lost to follow-up and 25 were excluded from the analysis. At day 42, 137 (99·3%) of 138 patients taking artemether-lumefantrine and 122 (97·6%) of 125 taking quinine were cured-difference 1·7% (lower limit of 95% CI -0·9). There were 290 adverse events in the quinine group and 141 in the artemether-lumefantrine group. INTERPRETATION: Artemisinin derivatives are not inferior to oral quinine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in pregnancy and might be preferable on the basis of safety and efficacy. FUNDING: Médecins Sans Frontières and the European Commission.
    • Efficacy and safety of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine.

      Myint, H Y; Ashley, E A; Day, N P J; Nosten, F; White, N J; Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420/6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. (Elsevier, 2007-09)
      Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, a fixed-dose combination antimalarial, is an inexpensive, safe and highly effective treatment for uncomplicated falciparum or vivax malaria. Efficacy assessed over 28-63 days has consistently exceeded 95% in the treatment of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria. More than 2600 patients have been treated with this combination in prospective studies, mainly in Southeast Asia. Tolerability was uniformly good, and no serious adverse effects have been identified. The dosing regimen has been simplified from four doses to once daily over 3 days. More information on efficacy in Africa, and more pharmacokinetic and efficacy data in children are needed.
    • Efficacy of amodiaquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Nigeria in an area with high-level resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine.

      Graupner, J; Göbels, K; Grobusch, M P; Lund, A; Richter, J; Häussinger, D; Medecins sans Frontières (MSF), Max Euweplein 40, 1001, EA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. (2005-06)
      Falciparum Malaria is hyperendemic in southern Nigeria and chloroquine resistance is an increasing problem. Therefore, the parasitological and haematological response to treatment with amodiaquine was studied in children under 5 years during a 14-day follow-up. Of 105 children who accomplished the study (out of 114 who were enrolled), 95.3% were parasite-negative on thick blood film on day 7, which decreased to 89.5% on day 14. The haemoglobin levels increased on average by 1.3% on day 14 (+/-1.9) and more pronounced in children with anaemia<10 g/dl on enrollment. The number of patients with adverse events (mainly pruritus and nausea) was few. This study shows that amodiaquine is effective, safe and affordable in an area with high resistance to chloroquine.
    • Efficacy of antimalarial treatment in Guinea: in vivo study of two artemisinin combination therapies in Dabola and molecular markers of resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in N'Zérékoré.

      Bonnet, M; Roper, C; Félix, M; Coulibaly, L; Kankolongo, G M; Guthmann, J P; Epicentre, 8, Paris, France. maryline.bonnet@geneva.msf.org (BioMed Central, 2007)
      BACKGROUND: In the last five years, countries have been faced with changing their malaria treatment policy to an artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), many with no national data on which to base their decision. This is particularly true for a number of West African countries, including Guinea, where these studies were performed. Two studies were conducted in 2004/2005 in programmes supported by Medecins Sans Frontieres, when chloroquine was still national policy, but artesunate (AS)/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) had been used in refugee camps for two years. METHODS: In Dabola (central Guinea), 220 children aged 6-59 months with falciparum malaria were randomized to receive either AS/amodiaquine (AQ) or AS/SP. In vivo efficacy was assessed following the 2003 World Health Organization guidelines. In a refugee camp in Laine (south of Guinea), where an in vivo study was not feasible due to the unstable context, a molecular genotyping study in 160 patients assessed the prevalence of mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) (codons 108, 51, 59) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) (codons 436, 437, 540) genes of Plasmodium falciparum, which have been associated with resistance to pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine, respectively. RESULTS: In Dabola, after 28 days of follow-up, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-adjusted failure rates were 1.0% (95%CI 0-5.3) for AS/AQ and 1.0% (95%CI 0-5.5) for AS/SP. In the refugee camp in Laine, the molecular genotyping study found three dhfr mutations in 85.6% (95%CI 79.2-90.7) patients and quintuple dhfr/dhps mutations in 9.6% (95%CI 5.2-15.9). CONCLUSION: Both AS/AQ and AS/SP are highly efficacious in Dabola, whereas there is molecular evidence of established SP resistance in Laine. This supports the choice of the national programme of Guinea to adopt AS/AQ as first line antimalarial treatment. The results highlight the difficulties faced by control programmes, which have gone through the upheaval of implementing ACTs, but cannot predict how long their therapeutic life will be, especially in countries which have chosen drugs also available as monotherapies.
    • Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine in Relation to Drug Exposure in Children With and Without Severe Acute Malnutrition: an Open Comparative Intervention Study in Mali and Niger

      Denoeud-Ndam, L; Dicko, A; Baudin, E; Guindo, O; Grandesso, F; Diawara, H; Sissoko, S; Sanogo, K; Traoré, S; Keita, S; et al. (BioMed Central, 2016-10-24)
      Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) affects almost all organs and has been associated with reduced intestinal absorption of medicines. However, very limited information is available on the pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs in this vulnerable population. We assessed artemether-lumefantrine (AL) clinical efficacy in children with SAM compared to those without.
    • Efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine fixed-dose combinations for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria among children aged six to 59 months in Nimba County, Liberia: an open-label randomized non-inferiority trial.

      Schramm, Birgit; Valeh, Parastou; Baudin, Elisabeth; Mazinda, Charles S; Smith, Richard; Dhorda, Mehul; Boum, Yap II; Sundaygar, Timothy; Zolia, Yah M; Jones, Joel J; et al. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2013-07-17)
      Prospective efficacy monitoring of anti-malarial treatments is imperative for timely detection of resistance development. The in vivo efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) fixed-dose combination (FDC) was compared to that of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) among children aged six to 59 months in Nimba County, Liberia, where Plasmodium falciparum malaria is endemic and efficacy data are scarce.
    • Efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Maradi, Niger

      Grandesso, F; Guindo, O; Woi Messe, L; Makarimi, R; Traore, A; Dama, S; Laminou, IM; Rigal, J; de Smet, M; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, O; et al. (BioMed Central, 2018-01-25)
      Malaria endemic countries need to assess efficacy of anti-malarial treatments on a regular basis. Moreover, resistance to artemisinin that is established across mainland South-East Asia represents today a major threat to global health. Monitoring the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies is of paramount importance to detect as early as possible the emergence of resistance in African countries that toll the highest burden of malaria morbidity and mortality.
    • Efficacy of chloroquine + sulfadoxine--pyrimethamine, mefloquine + artesunate and artemether + lumefantrine combination therapies to treat Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh.

      van den Broek, I; Maung, U A; Peters, A; Liem, L; Kamal, M; Rahman, M; Rahman, M; Bangali, A M; Das, S; Barends, M; et al. (Elsevier, 2005-10)
      Bangladesh faces growing levels of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Alternative antimalarial therapies, particularly combination regimens, need to be considered. Therefore, the efficacy of three antimalarial combination therapies was assessed in Chittagong Hill Tracts. A total of 364 P. falciparum patients were recruited and randomly assigned to either CQ + SP, mefloquine + artesunate (MQ + AS) or lumefantrine + artemether (Coartem). Results showed that CQ + SP therapy was less effective than the two artemisinin-based combination therapies. The day 42 PCR-corrected efficacy rate was 62.4% for CQ + SP, 100% for MQ + AS and 97.1% for Coartem. Failures occurred at a shorter interval after CQ + SP treatment than after Coartem. The artemisinin-based therapies effectively prevented development of gametocytes, whereas CQ + SP did not. All three therapies were well tolerated, although reports of mild complaints during treatment appeared higher with MQ + AS. We conclude that CQ + SP is not a viable option for replacing CQ monotherapy as first-line P. falciparum treatment in this area of Bangladesh. A change to artemisinin-based combination therapy is recommended. Both Coartem and MQ + AS appear to be good options, effective in curing P. falciparum malaria and in preventing recrudescences following treatment.
    • Efficacy of chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Koumantou, Mali.

      de Radiguès, X; Diallo, K I; Diallo, M; Ngwakum, P A; Maiga, H; Djimdé, A; Sacko, M; Doumbo, O; Guthmann, J P; Epicentre, 42 bis, Boulevard Richard Lenoir, 75011 Paris, France. xderadigues@epicentre.msf.org (Elsevier, 2006-11)
      We report the results of an in vivo antimalarial efficacy study with chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) conducted between 2003 and 2004 in Koumantou, southern Mali. A total of 244 children were included in the study; 210 children were followed-up for 28 days according to WHO recommendations, with PCR genotyping to distinguish late recrudescence from re-infection. Global failure proportions at Day 14, without taking into account re-infections, were 44.2% (95% CI 34.9-53.5%) in the CQ group and 2.0% (95% CI 0.0-4.8%) in the SP group. PCR-adjusted failure proportions at Day 28 were even higher in the CQ group (90.5% (95/105), 95% CI 84.8-96.2%) and relatively low in the SP group (7.0% (7/100), 95% CI 1.9-12.1%). These results show that CQ is no longer efficacious in Koumantou. The use of SP in monotherapy is likely to compromise its efficacy. We recommend the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Koumantou.
    • Efficacy of chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria among children under five in Bongor and Koumra, Chad.

      Grandesso, F; Bachy, C; Donam, I; Ntambi, J; Habimana, J; D'Alessandro, U; Maikere, J; Vanlerberghe, V; Kerah, C H; Guthmann, J P; et al. (Elsevier, 2006-05)
      We report two 28-day in-vivo antimalarial efficacy studies carried out in the urban centres of Bongor and Koumra, southern Chad. We assess chloroquine (CQ), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) to treat Plasmodium falciparum uncomplicated malaria. Methods and outcome classification complied with latest WHO guidelines. Out of the 301 and 318 children aged 6-59 months included in Bongor and Koumra, respectively, 246 (81.7%) and 257 (80.8%) were eligible for analysis. In Bongor and Koumra, the 28-day PCR-adjusted failure rates for CQ were 23.7% (95% CI 14.7-34.8%) and 32.9% (95% CI 22.1-45.1%), respectively, and those for SP were 16.3% (95% CI 9.4-25.5%) and 4.3% (95% CI 1.2-10.5%). AQ failure rates were 6.4% (95% CI 2.1-14.3%) and 2.2% (95% CI 0.3-7.6%). The current use of CQ in Bongor and Koumra is questionable, and a more efficacious treatment is needed. Considering the reduced efficacy of SP in Bongor, AQ seems to be the best option for the time being. Following WHO recommendations that prioritize the use of artemisinin-based combinations, artesunate plus amodiaquine could be a potential first-line treatment. Nevertheless, the efficacy of this combination should be evaluated and the change carefully prepared, implemented and monitored.
    • Efficacy of chloroquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kajo Keji county, Sudan.

      Stivanello, E; Cavailler, P; Cassano, F; Omar, S A; Kariuki, D; Mwangi, J; Piola, P; Guthmann, J P; Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland. elisasti@tin.it (Wiley-Blackwell, 2004-09)
      To provide advice on the rational use of antimalarial drugs, Médecins Sans Frontières conducted a randomized, an open label efficacy study in Kajo Keji, an area of high transmission of malaria in southern Sudan. The efficacy of chloroquine (CQ), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) were measured in a 28-day in vivo study, with results corrected by PCR genotyping. Of 2010 children screened, 115 children aged 6-59 months with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomized into each group to receive a supervised course of treatment. Of these, 114, 103 and 111 were analysed in the CQ, SP and AQ groups, respectively. The overall parasitological failure rates at day 28 were 93.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 87.3-97.3] for CQ, 69.9% (95% CI 60.0-78.3) for SP, and 25.2% (95% CI 17.7-34.5) for AQ. These results provide important missing data on antimalarial drug efficacy in southern Sudan. They indicate that none of the drugs could be used in monotherapy and suggest that even in combination with artemisinin, cure rates might not be efficacious enough. We recommend a combination of artemether and lumefantrine as first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria cases in Kajo Keji county.
    • Efficacy of three artemisinin combination therapies for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Republic of Congo.

      van den Broek, I; Kitz, C; Al Attas, S; Libama, F; Balasegaram, M; Guthmann, J P; Médecins sans Frontières, London, UK. ingrid.van.den.broek@rivm.nl <ingrid.van.den.broek@rivm.nl> (BioMed Central, 2006)
      BACKGROUND: Presented here are the results of a comparative trial on the efficacy of three artemisinin-based combinations conducted from May to October 2004, in Pool Province, Republic of Congo. METHODS: The main outcome was the proportion of cases of true treatment success at day 28. Recrudescences were distinguished from re-infections by PCR analysis. A total of 298 children of 6-59 months were randomized to receive either artesunate + SP (AS+SP), artesunate + amodiaquine (AS+AQ) or artemether + lumefantrine (AL), of which 15 (5%) were lost to follow-up. RESULTS: After 28 days, there were 21/85 (25%) recurrent parasitaemias in the AS+SP group, 31/97 (32%) in the AS+AQ group and 13/100 (13%) in the AL group. The 28-day PCR-corrected cure rate was 90.1% [95% CI 80.7-95.9] for AS+SP, 98.5% [95% CI 92.0-100] for AS+AQ and 100% [95.8-100] for AL, thereby revealing a weaker response to AS+SP than to AL (p = 0.003) and to AS+AQ (p = 0.06). A potential bias was the fact that children treated with AL were slightly older and in better clinical condition, but logistic regression did not identify these as relevant factors. There was no significant difference between groups in fever and parasite clearance time, improvement of anaemia and gametocyte carriage at day 28. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: Considering the higher efficacy of AL as compared to AS+SP and the relatively high proportion of cases with re-infections in the AS+AQ group, we conclude that AL is clinically more effective than AS+SP and AS+AQ in this area of the Republic of Congo. Implementation of the recently chosen new national first-line AS+AQ should be monitored closely.
    • Efficacy of two artemisinin combination therapies for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children under 5 years, Malakal, Upper Nile, Sudan.

      van den Broek, I; Amsalu, R; Balasegaram, M; Hepple, P; Alemu, E; Hussein, E B; Al-Faith, M; Montgomery, J; Checchi, F; Manson's Unit, MSF -UK, 67-74 Saffron Hill, London EC1N, UK. ingrid.van.den.broek@london.msf.org (BioMed Central, 2005)
      BACKGROUND: The treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan has been in process of change since 2003. Preceding the change, this study aimed to determine which artemisinin-based combination therapies is more effective to treat uncomplicated malaria in Malakal, Upper Nile, Sudan. METHODS: Clinical trial to assess the efficacy of 2 antimalarial therapies to treat P. falciparum infections in children aged 6-59 months, in a period of 42 days after treatment. RESULTS: A total of 269 children were followed up to 42 days. Artesunate plus Sulfadoxine/Pyrimethamine (AS+SP) and Artesunate plus Amodiaquine (AS+AQ) were both found to be efficacious in curing malaria infections by rapid elimination of parasites and clearance of fever, in preventing recrudescence and suppressing gametocytaemia. The combination of AS+SP appeared slightly more efficacious than AS+AQ, with 4.4% (4/116) versus 15% (17/113) of patients returning with malaria during the 6-week period after treatment (RR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.81-0.96). PCR analysis identified only one recrudescence which, together with one other early treatment failure, gave efficacy rates of 99.0% for AS+AQ (96/97) and 99.1% for AS+SP (112/113). However, PCR results were incomplete and assuming part of the indeterminate samples were recrudescent infections leads to an estimated efficacy ranging 97-98% for AS+SP and 88-95% for AS+AQ. CONCLUSION: These results lead to the recommendation of ACT, and specifically AS+SP, for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in this area of Sudan. When implemented, ACT efficacy should be monitored in sentinel sites representing different areas of the country.
    • Electrocardiographic safety evaluation of dihydroartemisinin piperaquine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

      Mytton, O T; Ashley, E A; Peto, L; Price, R N; La, Y; Hae, R; Singhasivanon, P; White, N J; Nosten, F; Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mae Sot, Thailand. (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2007-09)
      Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) could become a leading fixed combination malaria treatment worldwide. Although there is accumulating evidence of efficacy and safety from clinical trials, data on cardiotoxicity are limited. In two randomized controlled trials in Thailand, 56 patients had ECGs performed before treatment, 4 hours after the first dose, and 4 hours after the last dose. The mean (95% CI) changes in QTc interval (Bazett's correction) were 2 (-6 to 9) ms and 14 (7 to 21) ms, respectively. These small changes on the third day of treatment are similar to those observed elsewhere in the convalescent phase following antimalarial treatment with drugs known to have no cardiac effects and are therefore likely to result from recovery from acute malaria and not the treatment given. At therapeutic doses, DP does not have clinically significant effects on the electrocardiogram.