• Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in African children (AQUAMAT): an open-label, randomised trial

      Dondorp, Arjen M; Fanello, Caterina I; Hendriksen, Ilse C E; Gomes, Ermelinda; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D; Bojang, Kalifa; Olaosebikan, Rasaq; Anunobi, Nkechinyere; Maitland, Kathryn; et al. (2010-11-08)
      Severe malaria is a major cause of childhood death and often the main reason for paediatric hospital admission in sub-Saharan Africa. Quinine is still the established treatment of choice, although evidence from Asia suggests that artesunate is associated with a lower mortality. We compared parenteral treatment with either artesunate or quinine in African children with severe malaria.
    • Assessing antimalarial efficacy in a time of change to artemisinin-based combination therapies: The role of Médecins Sans Frontières

      Guthmann, J P; Checchi, F; van den Broek, I; Balkan, S; Van Herp, M; Comte, E; Bernal, O; Kindermans, J M; Venis, S; Legros, D; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2008-08-05)
    • Assessing the Asymptomatic Reservoir and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Effectiveness in a Low Transmission Setting Threatened by Artemisinin Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum

      Falq, G; Van Den Bergh, R; De Smet, M; Etienne, W; Nguon, C; Rekol, H; Imwong, M; Dondorp, A; Kindermans, JM (BioMed Central, 2016-09-01)
      In Cambodia, elimination of artemisinin resistance through direct elimination of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite may be the only strategy. Prevalence and incidence at district and village levels were assessed in Chey Saen district, Preah Vihear province, North of Cambodia. Molecular and clinical indicators for artemisinin resistance were documented.
    • Assessment of three new parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pan-pLDH) tests for diagnosis of uncomplicated malaria.

      Fogg, C; Twesigye, R; Batwala, V; Piola, P; Nabasumba, C; Kiguli, J; Mutebi, F; Hook, C; Guillerm, M; Moody, A; et al. (Elsevier, 2008-01)
      A study to assess the diagnostic capabilities of three parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pan-pLDH) tests, Vistapan), Carestart and Parabank), was conducted in Uganda. An HRP2 test, Paracheck-Pf), and a Giemsa-stained blood film were performed with the pLDH tests for outpatients with suspected malaria. In total, 460 subjects were recruited: 248 with positive blood films and 212 with negative blood films. Plasmodium falciparum was present in 95% of infections. Sensitivity above 90% was shown by two pLDH tests, Carestart (95.6%) and Vistapan (91.9%), and specificity above 90% by Parabank (94.3%) and Carestart (91.5%). Sensitivity decreased with low parasitaemia (chi(2) trend, P<0.001); however, all tests achieved sensitivity >90% with parasitaemia > or =100/microl. All tests had good inter-reader reliability (kappa>0.95). Two weeks after diagnosis, 4-10% of pLDH tests were still positive compared with 69.7% of the HRP2 tests. All tests had similar ease of use. In conclusion, two pLDH tests performed well in diagnosing P. falciparum malaria, and all pLDH tests became negative after treatment more quickly than the HRP2. Therefore the rapid test of choice for use with artemisinin-combination therapies in this area would be one of these new pLDH tests.
    • Assessment of two malaria rapid diagnostic tests in children under five years of age, with follow-up of false-positive pLDH test results, in a hyperendemic falciparum malaria area, Sierra Leone.

      Gerstl, Sibylle; Dunkley, Sophie; Mukhtar, Ahmed; De Smet, Martin; Baker, Samuel; Maikere, Jacob (2010-01-21)
      ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) use HRP2 detection, including Paracheck-Pf(R), but their utility is limited by persistent false positivity after treatment. PLDH-based tests become negative more quickly, but sensitivity has been reported below the recommended standard of 90%. A new pLDH test, CareStartTM three-line P.f/PAN-pLDH, claims better sensitivity with continued rapid conversion to negative. The study aims were to 1) compare sensitivity and specificity of CareStartTM to Paracheck-Pf(R) to diagnose falciparum malaria in children under five years of age, 2) assess how quickly false-positive CareStartTM tests become negative and 3) evaluate ease of use and inter-reader agreement of both tests. METHODS: Participants were included if they were aged between two and 59 months, presenting to a Medecins Sans Frontieres community health centre in eastern Sierra Leone with suspected malaria defined as fever (axillary temperature > 37.5degreesC) and/or history of fever in the previous 72 hours and no signs of severe disease. The same capillary blood was used for the RDTs and the blood slide, the latter used as the gold standard reference. All positive participants were treated with supervised artesunate and amodiaquine treatment for three days. Participants with a persistent false-positive CareStartTM, but a negative blood slide on Day 2, were followed with repeated CareStartTM and blood slide tests every seven days until CareStartTM became negative or a maximum of 28 days. RESULTS: Sensitivity of CareStartTM was 99.4% (CI 96.8-100.0, 168/169) and of Paracheck-Pf(R), 98.8% (95% CI 95.8-99.8, 167/169). Specificity of CareStartTM was 96.0% (CI 91.9-98.4, 167/174) and of Paracheck-Pf(R), 74.7% (CI 67.6-81.0, 130/174) (p<0.001). Neither test showed any change in sensitivity with decreasing parasitaemia. Of the 155 eligible follow-up CareStartTM participants, 63.9% (99/155) had a false-positive test on day 2, 21.3% (33/155) on day 7, 5.8% (9/155) on day 14, 1.9% (3/155) on day 21 and 0.6% (1/155) on day 28. The median time for test negativity was seven days. CareStartTM was as easy to use and interpret as Paracheck-Pf(R) with excellent inter-reader agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Both RDTs were highly sensitive, met WHO standards for the detection of falciparum malaria monoinfections where parasitaemia was >100 parasites/mul and were easy to use. CareStartTM persistent false positivity decreased quickly after successful anti-malarial treatment, making it a good choice for a RDT for a hyperendemic falciparum malaria area.
    • Association Between HRP–2/pLDH Rapid Diagnostic Test Band Positivity and Malaria–related Anemia at a Peripheral Health Facility in Western Uganda

      Boyce, Ross; Reyes, Raquel; Ntaro, Moses; Mulogo, Edgar; Matte, Michael; Boum, Yap; Siedner, Mark J. (Edinburgh University Global Health Society, 2015-07-06)
    • Barriers to prompt and effective treatment of malaria in northern Sri Lanka.

      Reilley, B; Abeyasinghe, R; Pakianathar, M V; Medecins sans Frontieres, Colombo, Sri Lanka. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2002-09)
      BACKGROUND: For the past 18 years, northern Sri Lanka has been affected by armed ethnic conflict. This has had a heavy impact on displacement of civilians, health delivery services, number of health professionals in the area and infrastructure. The north of Sri Lanka has a severe malaria burden, with less than 5% of the national population suffering 34% of reported cases. Health care providers investigated treatment-seeking behaviour and levels of treatment failure believed to be the result of lack of adherence to treatment. METHODS: Pre- and post-treatment interviews with patients seeking treatment in the outpatient department (OPD) and focus groups. RESULTS: A total of 271 persons completed interviews: 54.4% sought treatment within 2 days of the onset of symptoms, and 91.9% self-treated with drugs with prior to seeking treatment, mainly with paracetamol. Self-treatment was associated with delaying treatment (RR 3.55, CI 1.23-10.24, P=0.002). In post-treatment interviews, self-reported default was 26.1%. The main reasons for not taking the entire regimen were side-effects (57.6%) and disappearance of symptoms (16.7%). Focus groups indicated some lack of confidence in chloroquine treatment and prophylaxis, and scant enthusiasm for prevention methods. CONCLUSIONS: A number of factors contribute to a lack of access and a lower quality of care for malaria: lack of medical staff and facilities because of the fighting; lack of confidence in treatment, and perception of malaria as a routine illness. Prevention efforts need to take into account certain beliefs and practices to be successful.
    • Can timely vector control interventions triggered by atypical environmental conditions prevent malaria epidemics? A case-study from wajir county, kenya.

      Maes, Peter; Harries, Anthony D; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Noor, Abdisalan; Snow, Robert W; Tayler-Smith, Katherine; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Zachariah, Rony; Allan, Richard (Public Library of Science, 2014-04-03)
      Atypical environmental conditions with drought followed by heavy rainfall and flooding in arid areas in sub-Saharan Africa can lead to explosive epidemics of malaria, which might be prevented through timely vector-control interventions.
    • Case management of a multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 outbreak in a crisis context in Sierra Leone, 1999-2000.

      Guerin, P J; Brasher, C; Baron, E; Mic, D; Grimont, F; Ryan, M; Aavitsland, P; Legros, D; Epicentre, 8 rue Saint Sabin, 75011 Paris, France. philippe.guerin@epicentre.msf.org (Elsevier, 2004-11)
      From December 1999 to the end of February 2000, 4218 cases of dysentery were reported in Kenema district, southeastern Sierra Leone, by a Médecins Sans Frontières team operating in this region. Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 was isolated from the early cases. The overall attack rate was 7.5% but higher among children under 5 years (11.2%) compared to the rest of the population (6.8%) (RR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.8). The case fatality ratio was 3.1%, and higher for children under 5 years (6.1% vs. 2.1%) (RR = 2.9; 95% CI 2.1-4.1). A case management strategy based on stratification of affected cases was chosen in this resource-poor setting. Patients considered at higher risk of death were treated with a 5 day ciprofloxacin regimen in isolation centres. Five hundred and eighty-three cases were treated with a case fatality ratio of 0.9%. Patients who did not have signs of severity when seen by health workers were given hygiene advice and oral rehydration salts. This strategy was effective in this complex emergency.
    • Chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine efficacy for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Upper Nile, south Sudan.

      van den Broek, I; Gatkoi, T; Lowoko, B; Nzila, A; Ochong, E; Keus, K; Médecins sans Frontières-Holland, South Sudan-Section, P. O. Box 4064, Nairobi, Kenya. ingrid_vandenbroek@yahoo.com (Elsevier, 2008-01-31)
      The current first-line and second-line drugs for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in South Sudan, chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), were evaluated and compared with amodiaquine, in an MSF-Holland-run clinic in eastern Upper Nile, South Sudan from June to December 2001. Patients with uncomplicated malaria and fever were stratified by age group and randomly allocated to one of 3 treatment regimes. A total of 342 patients was admitted and followed for 14 d after treatment. The dropout rate was 10.2%. Of those who completed the study, 104 were treated with chloroquine (25 mg/kg, 3 d), 102 with SP (25 mg/kg sulfadoxine and 1.25 mg/kg pyrimethamine, single dose) and 101 with amodiaquine (25 mg/kg, 3 d). Adequate clinical response was observed in 88.5% of patients treated with chloroquine, 100% of patients treated with SP and 94.1% of patients treated with amodiaquine. In children aged < 5 years, the success rate was lower: 83.3% for chloroquine and 93.0% for amodiaquine. In adults no treatment failures were found, but children aged 5-15 years showed intermediate levels. In addition, we determined the initial genotypes of dhfr and dhps of 44 isolates from the SP-treated group and > 80% were found to be wild type for dhfr and 100% for dhps. Two percent of isolates had a single mutation and 16% had double mutations of dhfr. These data are in full agreement with the clinical effectiveness of SP. A change in malaria treatment protocols for South Sudan is recommended.
    • Clinical diagnostic evaluation of HRP2 and pLDH-based rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in an area receiving seasonal malaria chemoprevention in Niger

      Coldiron, M; Assao, B; Langendorf, C; Sayinzoga-Makombe, N; de la Tour, R; Piriou, E; Ciglenecki, I; Mumina, A; Guindo, O; Page, A-L; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-12-26)
      Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for malaria are common, but their performance varies. Tests using histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) antigen are most common, and many have high sensitivity. HRP2 tests can remain positive for weeks after treatment, limiting their specificity and usefulness in high-transmission settings. Tests using Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) have been less widely used but have higher specificity, mostly due to a much shorter time to become negative. Methods A prospective, health centre-based, diagnostic evaluation of two malaria RDTs was performed in rural Niger during the high malaria transmission season (3–28 October, 2017) and during the low transmission season (28 January–31 March, 2018). All children under 5 years of age presenting with fever (axillary temperature > 37.5 °C) or history of fever in the previous 24 h were eligible. Capillary blood was collected by finger prick. The SD Bioline HRP2 (catalog: 05FK50) and the CareStart pLDH(pan) (catalog: RMNM-02571) were performed in parallel, and thick and thin smears were prepared. Microscopy was performed at Epicentre, Maradi, Niger, with external quality control. The target sample size was 279 children with microscopy-confirmed malaria during each transmission season. Results In the high season, the sensitivity of both tests was estimated at > 99%, but the specificity of both tests was lower: 58.0% (95% CI 52.1–63.8) for the pLDH test and 57.4% (95% CI 51.5–63.1) for the HRP2 test. The positive predictive value was 66.3% (95% CI 61.1–71.2) for both tests. In the low season, the sensitivity of both tests dropped: 91.0% (95% CI 85.3–95.0) for the pLDH test and 85.8% (95% CI 79.3–90.9) for the HRP2 test. The positive predictive value remained low for both tests in the low season: 60.5% (95% CI 53.9–66.8) for the pLDH test and 61.9% (55.0–68.4) for the HRP2 test. Performance was similar across different production lots, gender, age of the children, and, during the high season, time since the most recent distribution of seasonal malaria chemoprevention. Conclusions The low specificity of the pLDH RDT in this setting was unexpected and is not easily explained. As the pLDH test continues to be introduced into new settings, the questions raised by this study will need to be addressed.
    • Clinical diagnostic evaluation of HRP2 and pLDH-based rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in an area receiving seasonal malaria chemoprevention in Niger.

      Coldiron, M; Assao, B; Langendorf, C; Sayinzoga-Makombe, N; Ciglenecki, I; de la Tour, R; Piriou, E; Bako, M; Mumina, A; Guindo, O; et al. (BioMed Central, 2019-12-26)
      BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for malaria are common, but their performance varies. Tests using histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) antigen are most common, and many have high sensitivity. HRP2 tests can remain positive for weeks after treatment, limiting their specificity and usefulness in high-transmission settings. Tests using Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) have been less widely used but have higher specificity, mostly due to a much shorter time to become negative. METHODS: A prospective, health centre-based, diagnostic evaluation of two malaria RDTs was performed in rural Niger during the high malaria transmission season (3-28 October, 2017) and during the low transmission season (28 January-31 March, 2018). All children under 5 years of age presenting with fever (axillary temperature > 37.5 °C) or history of fever in the previous 24 h were eligible. Capillary blood was collected by finger prick. The SD Bioline HRP2 (catalog: 05FK50) and the CareStart pLDH(pan) (catalog: RMNM-02571) were performed in parallel, and thick and thin smears were prepared. Microscopy was performed at Epicentre, Maradi, Niger, with external quality control. The target sample size was 279 children with microscopy-confirmed malaria during each transmission season. RESULTS: In the high season, the sensitivity of both tests was estimated at > 99%, but the specificity of both tests was lower: 58.0% (95% CI 52.1-63.8) for the pLDH test and 57.4% (95% CI 51.5-63.1) for the HRP2 test. The positive predictive value was 66.3% (95% CI 61.1-71.2) for both tests. In the low season, the sensitivity of both tests dropped: 91.0% (95% CI 85.3-95.0) for the pLDH test and 85.8% (95% CI 79.3-90.9) for the HRP2 test. The positive predictive value remained low for both tests in the low season: 60.5% (95% CI 53.9-66.8) for the pLDH test and 61.9% (55.0-68.4) for the HRP2 test. Performance was similar across different production lots, gender, age of the children, and, during the high season, time since the most recent distribution of seasonal malaria chemoprevention. CONCLUSIONS: The low specificity of the pLDH RDT in this setting was unexpected and is not easily explained. As the pLDH test continues to be introduced into new settings, the questions raised by this study will need to be addressed.
    • Clinical efficacy of chloroquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in children under five from south-western Uganda with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

      Legros, D; Johnson, K; Houpikian, P; Makanga, M; Kabakyenga, J K; Talisuna, A O; Taylor, W R J; Epicentre, P.O. Box 2362, Kampala, Uganda. (2002)
      We conducted a 14-day study (during March-May 1998) to assess the efficacy of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda. Overall treatment failure rates were 43 (81.1%) of 53 chloroquine recipients and 16 (25.0%) of 64 SP patients. Strategies to improve the life-span of standard and affordable anti-malarial drugs are needed.
    • Closing in on the Reservoir: Proactive Case Detection in High-Risk Groups as a Strategy to Detect Plasmodium falciparum Asymptomatic Carriers in Cambodia

      Rossi, Gabriele; Vernaeve, Lieven; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Nguon, Chea; Debackere, Mark; Abello Peiri, Carme; Van, Vuthea; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Eam, Rotha; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2018-01-18)
      In the frame of elimination strategies of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), active case detection has been recommended as complementary approach to the existing passive case detection programs. We trialed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based active detection strategy targeting asymptomatic individuals, named proactive case detection (PACD), with the aim of assessing its feasibility, the extra yield of Pf infections, and the at-risk population for Pf carriage status.
    • Community coverage of an antimalarial combination of artesunate and amodiaquine in Makamba Province, Burundi, nine months after its introduction.

      Gerstl, S; Cohuet, S; Edoh, K; Brasher, C; Lesage, A; Guthmann, J P; Checchi, F; Epicentre, Paris, France. sibylle.gerstl@epicentre.msf.org (BioMed Central, 2007)
      BACKGROUND: In 2003, artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ) was introduced as the new first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Burundi. After confirmed diagnosis, treatment was delivered at subsidized prices in public health centres. Nine months after its implementation a study was carried out to assess whether children below five years of age with uncomplicated malaria were actually receiving AS+AQ. METHODS: A community-based study was conducted in Makamba province. Randomly selected households containing one or more children under five with reported fever onset within fourteen days before the study date were eligible. Case-management information was collected based on caregiver recall. A case definition of symptomatic malaria from observations of children presenting a confirmed malaria episode on the day of the survey was developed. Based on this definition, those children who had probable malaria among those with fever onset in the 14 days prior to the study were identified retrospectively. Treatment coverage with AS+AQ was then estimated among these probable malaria cases. RESULTS: Out of 195 children with fever on the day of the study, 92 were confirmed as true malaria cases and 103 tested negative. The combination of 'loss of appetite', 'sweating', 'shivering' and 'intermittent fever' yielded the highest possible positive predictive value, and was chosen as the case definition of malaria. Out of 526 children who had had fever 14 days prior to the survey, 165 (31.4%) were defined as probable malaria cases using this definition. Among them, 20 (14.1%) had been treated with AS+AQ, 10 with quinine (5%), 68 (41%) received non-malaria treatments, and 67 got traditional treatment or nothing (39.9%). Most people sought treatment from public health centres (23/99) followed by private clinics (15/99, 14.1%). The median price paid for AS+AQ was 0.5 US$. CONCLUSION: AS+AQ was the most common treatment for patients with probable malaria at public health centres, but coverage was low due to low health centre utilisation and apparently inappropriate prescribing. In addition, AS+AQ was given to patients at a price ten times higher than the subsidized price. The availability and proper use of ACTs should be monitored and maximized after their introduction in order to have a significant impact on the burden of malaria.
    • Community participation during two mass anti-malarial administrations in Cambodia: lessons from a joint workshop

      Peto, TJ; Debackere, M; Etienne, W; Vernaeve, L; Tripura, R; Falq, G; Davoeung, C; Nguon, C; Rekol, H; von Seidlein, L; et al. (BioMed Central, 2018-01-27)
      Two mass drug administrations (MDA) against falciparum malaria were conducted in 2015-16, one as operational research in northern Cambodia, and the other as a clinical trial in western Cambodia. During an April 2017 workshop in Phnom Penh the field teams from Médecins Sans Frontières and the Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit discussed lessons for future MDAs.
    • Comparison of chloroquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine and mefloquine-artesunate for the treatment of falciparum malaria in Kachin State, North Myanmar.

      Smithuis, F; Shahmanesh, M; Kyaw, M K K; Savran, O; Lwin, S; White, N J; Medecins sans Frontieres-Holland, Yangon, Myanmar. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2004-11)
      Multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria is widespread in Asia. In Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam the national protocols have changed largely to artesunate combined treatment regimens but elsewhere in East and South Asia chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) are still widely recommended by national malaria control programmes. In Kachin State, northern Myanmar, an area of low seasonal malaria transmission, the efficacy of CQ (25 mg base/kg) and SP (1.25/25 mg/kg), the nationally recommended treatments at the time, were compared with mefloquine alone (M; 15 mg base/kg) and mefloquine combined with artesunate (MA; 15:4 mg/kg). An open randomized controlled trial enrolled 316 patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, stratified prospectively into three age-groups. Early treatment failures (ETF) occurred in 41% (32/78) of CQ treated patients and in 24% of patients treated with SP (18/75). In young children the ETF rates were 87% after CQ and 35% after SP. Four children (two CQ, two SP) developed symptoms of cerebral malaria within 3 days after treatment. By day 42, failure rates (uncorrected for reinfections) had increased to 79% for CQ and 81% for SP. ETF rates were 2.5% after treatment with M and 3.9% after treatment with MA (P > 0.2). Overall uncorrected treatment failure rates at day 42 following M and MA were 23% and 21%, respectively. Chloroquine and SP are completely ineffective for the treatment of falciparum malaria in northern Myanmar. Mefloquine treatment is much more effective, but three day combination regimens with artesunate will be needed for optimum efficacy and protection against resistance.
    • Competing risk events in antimalarial drug trials in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network individual participant data meta-analysis.

      Dahal, P; Simpson, JA; Abdulla, S; Achan, J; Adam, I; Agarwal, A; Allan, R; Anvikar, AR; Arinaitwe, E; Ashley, EA; et al. (BioMed Central, 2019-07-05)
      BACKGROUND: Therapeutic efficacy studies in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are confounded by new infections, which constitute competing risk events since they can potentially preclude/pre-empt the detection of subsequent recrudescence of persistent, sub-microscopic primary infections. METHODS: Antimalarial studies typically report the risk of recrudescence derived using the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) method, which considers new infections acquired during the follow-up period as censored. Cumulative Incidence Function (CIF) provides an alternative approach for handling new infections, which accounts for them as a competing risk event. The complement of the estimate derived using the K-M method (1 minus K-M), and the CIF were used to derive the risk of recrudescence at the end of the follow-up period using data from studies collated in the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network data repository. Absolute differences in the failure estimates derived using these two methods were quantified. In comparative studies, the equality of two K-M curves was assessed using the log-rank test, and the equality of CIFs using Gray's k-sample test (both at 5% level of significance). Two different regression modelling strategies for recrudescence were considered: cause-specific Cox model and Fine and Gray's sub-distributional hazard model. RESULTS: Data were available from 92 studies (233 treatment arms, 31,379 patients) conducted between 1996 and 2014. At the end of follow-up, the median absolute overestimation in the estimated risk of cumulative recrudescence by using 1 minus K-M approach was 0.04% (interquartile range (IQR): 0.00-0.27%, Range: 0.00-3.60%). The overestimation was correlated positively with the proportion of patients with recrudescence [Pearson's correlation coefficient (ρ): 0.38, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.30-0.46] or new infection [ρ: 0.43; 95% CI 0.35-0.54]. In three study arms, the point estimates of failure were greater than 10% (the WHO threshold for withdrawing antimalarials) when the K-M method was used, but remained below 10% when using the CIF approach, but the 95% confidence interval included this threshold. CONCLUSIONS: The 1 minus K-M method resulted in a marginal overestimation of recrudescence that became increasingly pronounced as antimalarial efficacy declined, particularly when the observed proportion of new infection was high. The CIF approach provides an alternative approach for derivation of failure estimates in antimalarial trials, particularly in high transmission settings.
    • Complex interactions between malaria and malnutrition: a systematic literature review

      Das, D; Grais, RF F; Okiro, E A; Stepniewska, K; Mansoor, R; van der Kam, S; Terlouw, D J; Tarning, J; Barnes, K I; Guerin, P J (BMC, 2018-10-29)
      Despite substantial improvement in the control of malaria and decreased prevalence of malnutrition over the past two decades, both conditions remain heavy burdens that cause hundreds of thousands of deaths in children in resource-poor countries every year. Better understanding of the complex interactions between malaria and malnutrition is crucial for optimally targeting interventions where both conditions co-exist. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence of the interplay between malaria and malnutrition.
    • Concomitant malaria among visceral leishmaniasis in-patients from Gedarif and Sennar States, Sudan: a retrospective case-control study

      van den Bogaart, Erika; Berkhout, Marieke Mz; Nour, Ayman Bym; Mens, Pètra F; Talha, Al-Badawi A; Adams, Emily R; Ahmed, Hashim Bm; Abdelrahman, Samira H; Ritmeijer, Koert; Nour, Bakri Ym; et al. (BioMed Central, 2013-04-11)
      In areas where visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and malaria are co-endemic, co-infections are common. Clinical implications range from potential diagnostic delay to increased disease-related morbidity, as compared to VL patients. Nevertheless, public awareness of the disease remains limited. In VL-endemic areas with unstable and seasonal malaria, vulnerability to the disease persists through all age-groups, suggesting that in these populations, malaria may easily co-occur with VL, with potentially severe clinical effects.