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  • The problem with vitamin D supplementation for tuberculosis

    Reuter, A; Furin, J (Elsevier, 2020-07-01)
    “We were hungry all the time”, is the first thing a 28-year-old tuberculosis survivor from rural Haiti told one of us (JF) when asked in 2017 about his experience of being treated for the disease. This patient had been cutting sugar cane to support his family of seven—all of whom lived in a one-room shack—but had to stop his gruelling labour once he became sick with tuberculosis, both because of his physical symptoms and because he had to go to the clinic daily for directly observed therapy. Without his income, his family fell into ruin and the pressing need to feed his children became his most urgent priority. “It was hard to take my treatment when the little ones were holding their bellies and crying. We lost so much to TB.”
  • Systematic or test-guided treatment for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults

    Blanc, FX; Badje, AD; Bonnet, M; Gabillard, D; Messou, E; Muzoora, C; Samreth, S; Nguyen, BD; Borand, L; Domergue, A; et al. (Massachusetts Medical Society, 2020-06-18)
    Background: In regions with high burdens of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), many HIV-infected adults begin antiretroviral therapy (ART) when they are already severely immunocompromised. Mortality after ART initiation is high in these patients, and tuberculosis and invasive bacterial diseases are common causes of death. Methods: We conducted a 48-week trial of empirical treatment for tuberculosis as compared with treatment guided by testing in HIV-infected adults who had not previously received ART and had CD4+ T-cell counts below 100 cells per cubic millimeter. Patients recruited in Ivory Coast, Uganda, Cambodia, and Vietnam were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to undergo screening (Xpert MTB/RIF test, urinary lipoarabinomannan test, and chest radiography) to determine whether treatment for tuberculosis should be started or to receive systematic empirical treatment with rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide daily for 2 months, followed by rifampin and isoniazid daily for 4 months. The primary end point was a composite of death from any cause or invasive bacterial disease within 24 weeks (primary analysis) or within 48 weeks after randomization. Results: A total of 522 patients in the systematic-treatment group and 525 in the guided-treatment group were included in the analyses. At week 24, the rate of death from any cause or invasive bacterial disease (calculated as the number of first events per 100 patient-years) was 19.4 with systematic treatment and 20.3 with guided treatment (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 1.44). At week 48, the corresponding rates were 12.8 and 13.3 (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.67 to 1.40]). At week 24, the probability of tuberculosis was lower with systematic treatment than with guided treatment (3.0% vs. 17.9%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.26), but the probability of grade 3 or 4 drug-related adverse events was higher with systematic treatment (17.4% vs. 7.2%; adjusted hazard ratio 2.57; 95% CI, 1.75 to 3.78). Serious adverse events were more common with systematic treatment. Conclusions: Among severely immunosuppressed adults with HIV infection who had not previously received ART, systematic treatment for tuberculosis was not superior to test-guided treatment in reducing the rate of death or invasive bacterial disease over 24 or 48 weeks and was associated with more grade 3 or 4 adverse events. (Funded by the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida et les Hépatites Virales; STATIS ANRS 12290 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02057796.).
  • Yield of Systematic Longitudinal Screening of Household Contacts of Pre-Extensively Drug Resistant (PreXDR) and Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR) Tuberculosis Patients in Mumbai, India

    Paryani, RH; Gupta, V; Singh, P; Verma, M; Sheikh, S; Yadav, R; Mansoor, H; Kalon, S; Selvaraju, S; Das, M; et al. (MDPI, 2020-05-26)
    While risk of tuberculosis (TB) is high among household contacts (HHCs) of pre-extensively drug resistant (pre-XDR) TB and XDR-TB, data on yield of systematic longitudinal screening are lacking. We aim to describe the yield of systematic longitudinal TB contact tracing among HHCs of patients with pre-XDR-TB and XDR-TB. At the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) clinic, Mumbai, India a cohort comprising 518 HHCs of 109 pre-XDR and XDR index cases was enrolled between January 2016 and June 2018. Regular HHC follow-ups were done till one year post treatment of index cases. Of 518 HHCs, 23 had TB (21 on TB treatment and two newly diagnosed) at the time of first visit. Of the rest, 19% HHCs had no follow-ups. Fourteen (3.5%) TB cases were identified among 400 HHCs; incidence rate: 2072/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 1227-3499). The overall yield of household contact tracing was 3% (16/518). Of 14 who were diagnosed with TB during follow-up, six had drug susceptible TB (DSTB); six had pre-XDR-TB and one had XDR-TB. Five of fourteen cases had resistance patterns concordant with their index case. In view of the high incidence of TB among HHCs of pre-XDR and XDR-TB cases, follow-up of HHCs for at least the duration of index cases' treatment should be considered.
  • Improving pediatric TB diagnosis in North Kivu (DR Congo), focusing on a clinical algorithm including targeted Xpert MTB/RIF on gastric aspirates

    Van Brusselen, D; Simons, E; Luendo, T; Luendo, T; Habarugira, D; Ngowa, J; Mitutso, NN; Moluh, Z; Steenssens, M; Seguin, R; et al. (BMC, 2020-05-14)
    Background The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is 323/100,000. A context of civil conflict, internally displaced people and mining activities suggests a higher regional TB incidence in North Kivu. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) supports the General Reference Hospital of Masisi, North Kivu, covering a population of 520,000, with an elevated rate of pediatric malnutrition. In July 2017, an adapted MSF pediatric TB diagnostic algorithm, including Xpert MTB/RIF on gastric aspirates (GAs), was implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the introduction of this clinical pediatric TB diagnostic algorithm influenced the number of children started on TB treatment. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of pediatric TB cases started on treatment in the inpatient therapeutic feeding centre (ITFC) and the pediatric ward. We compared data collected in the second half (July to December) of 2016 (before introduction of the new diagnostic algorithm) and the second half of 2017. For the outcome variables the difference between the two years was calculated by a Pearson Chi-square test. Results In 2017, 94 GAs were performed, compared to none in 2016. Twelve percent (11/94) of samples were Xpert MTB/RIF positive. Sixty-eight children (2.9% of total exits) aged between 3 months and 15 years started TB treatment in 2017, compared to 19 (1.4% of total exits) in 2016 (p 0.002). The largest increase in pediatric TB diagnoses in 2017 occurred in patients with a negative Xpert MTB/RIF result, but clinically highly suggestive of TB according to the newly introduced diagnostic algorithm. Fifty-two (3.1%) children under five years old started treatment in 2017, as compared to 14 (1.3%) in 2016 (p 0.004). The increase was less pronounced and not statistically significant in older patients: sixteen children (2.6%) above 5 years old started TB treatment in 2017 as compared to five (1.3%) in 2016 (p 0.17). Conclusion After the introduction of an adapted clinical pediatric TB diagnostic algorithm, including Xpert MTB/RIF on gastric aspirates, we observed a significant increase in the number of children – especially under 5 years old – started on TB treatment, mostly on clinical grounds. Increased ‘clinician awareness’ of pediatric TB likely played an important role.
  • The ethical imperative to relieve suffering for people with tuberculosis by ensuring access to palliative care

    Harding, R; Snyman, L; Ostgathe, C; Odell, S; Gwyther, L (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2020-05-01)
    Patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) continue to experience clinical uncertainty and high mortality and to bear a high burden of symptoms and other concerns. Additional concerns may be family support needs and stigma, particularly the latter, as TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection are common. Human rights covenants, global health policy and the End TB Strategy all recommend palliative care as an essential component of care services. As established in the resolution adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) on ‘‘Strengthening of palliative care as a component of comprehensive care throughout the life course’’, there is a ‘‘need for palliative care across disease groups (non-communicable diseases, and infectious diseases, including HIV and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis), and across all age groups’’. We address the ethical imperative to respect the dignity and fundamental rights of people with TB by providing palliative care. We review the evidence for the need for person-centred palliative care and highlight novel models that utilise the skills and training functions of specialist palliative care to achieve better care. We outline simple recommendations for the delivery of specialist and generalist palliative care, offer suggestions on how to ensure optimal coverage by enabling access to appropriate good-quality palliative care at all points of the health system, including alongside treatment. Finally, we set out the current priorities for research and policy to ensure that quality care is delivered to all who need it irrespective of treatment outcome, to minimise distress and to optimise engagement in treatment and care.
  • A case report of a child with probable drug resistant tuberculous pericarditis with a review of challenges involved in diagnosis, treatment and follow up of children with DR-TB pericarditis

    Swaminathan, A; du Cros, P; Achar, J; Kliescikova, J; Mirgayosieva, S; Pirmahmadzoda, B (BMC, 2020-04-22)
    Background: There are unique challenges in the diagnosis and management of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children. It is difficult to obtain confirmatory microbiological diagnosis in TB pericarditis. It is essential to differentiate between drug sensitive and drug resistant forms of TB as it has a major bearing on the regimen used, and inappropriate TB treatment combined with steroid use for pericarditis can lead to deterioration. With lack of samples, the treatment decision relies on the drug resistance pattern of the close contact if available. Therapeutic challenges of MDR-TB management in a child involve use of toxic drugs that need to be judiciously handled. We report a 2 years 4 months old male child who was diagnosed with TB pericarditis and treated based on the resistance pattern of his mother who was on treatment for pulmonary MDR-TB. Case presentation: This 2 years 4 months old male child was diagnosed with TB involving his pericardium. Getting him started on an appropriate regimen was delayed due to the difficulty in establishing microbiological confirmation and drug susceptibility. He was commenced on a regimen based on his mother's drug resistance pattern and required surgery due to cardiac failure during the course of his treatment. He successfully completed 2 years of therapy. Conclusions: This child's case demonstrates that despite unique challenges in diagnosis and management of drug resistant extra pulmonary tuberculosis in children, treatment of even complex forms can be successful. The need for high suspicion of MDR-TB, especially when there is close contact with pulmonary TB, careful design of an effective regimen that is tolerated by the child, indications for invasive surgical management of pericarditis, appropriate follow-up and management of adverse effects are emphasised.
  • Treating drug-resistant tuberculosis infection: no more excuses

    Reuter, A; Furin, J (Oxford University Press, 2020-04-08)
  • Drug-associated adverse events in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: an individual patient data meta-analysis

    Lan, Z; Ahmad, N; Baghaei, P; Barkane, L; Benedetti, A; Brode, SK; Brust, JCM; Campbell, JR; Chang, VWL; Falzon, D; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-03-17)
    BACKGROUND: Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis requires long-term therapy with a combination of multiple second-line drugs. These drugs are associated with numerous adverse events that can cause severe morbidity, such as deafness, and in some instances can lead to death. Our aim was to estimate the absolute and relative frequency of adverse events associated with different tuberculosis drugs to provide useful information for clinicians and tuberculosis programmes in selecting optimal treatment regimens. METHODS: We did a meta-analysis using individual-level patient data that were obtained from studies that reported adverse events that resulted in permanent discontinuation of anti-tuberculosis medications. We used a database created for our previous meta-analysis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment and outcomes, for which we did a systematic review of literature published between Jan 1, 2009, and Aug 31, 2015 (updated April 15, 2016), and requested individual patient-level information from authors. We also considered for this analysis studies contributing patient-level data in response to a public call made by WHO in 2018. Meta-analysis for proportions and arm-based network meta-analysis were done to estimate the incidence of adverse events for each tuberculosis drug. FINDINGS: 58 studies were identified, including 50 studies from the updated individual patient data meta-analysis for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment. 35 of these studies, with 9178 patients, were included in our analysis. Using meta-analysis of proportions, drugs with low risks of adverse event occurrence leading to permanent discontinuation included levofloxacin (1·3% [95% CI 0·3-5·0]), moxifloxacin (2·9% [1·6-5·0]), bedaquiline (1·7% [0·7-4·2]), and clofazimine (1·6% [0·5-5·3]). Relatively high incidence of adverse events leading to permanent discontinuation was seen with three second-line injectable drugs (amikacin: 10·2% [6·3-16·0]; kanamycin: 7·5% [4·6-11·9]; capreomycin: 8·2% [6·3-10·7]), aminosalicylic acid (11·6% [7·1-18·3]), and linezolid (14·1% [9·9-19·6]). Risk of bias in selection of studies was judged to be low because there were no important differences between included and excluded studies. Variability between studies was significant for most outcomes analysed. INTERPRETATION: Fluoroquinolones, clofazimine, and bedaquiline had the lowest incidence of adverse events leading to permanent drug discontinuation, whereas second-line injectable drugs, aminosalicylic acid, and linezolid had the highest incidence. These results suggest that close monitoring of adverse events is important for patients being treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Our results also underscore the urgent need for safer and better-tolerated drugs to reduce morbidity from treatment itself for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
  • WHO 2019 guidelines on drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment: based on evidence or expert opinion?

    Guglielmetti, L; Huerga, H; Khan, U; Varaine, F (European Respiratory Society, 2020-03-05)
  • High prevalence of hepatitis C infection among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients

    Seung, KJ; Franke, MF; Hewison, C; Huerga, H; Khan, U; Mitnick, CD (Elsevier, 2020-03-05)
  • Injectable-free regimens containing bedaquiline, delamanid, or both for adolescents with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in Khayelitsha, South Africa

    Mohr-Holland, E; Reuter, A; Furin, J; Garcia-Prats, A; De Azevedo, V; Mudaly, V; Kock, Y; Trivino-Duran, L; Isaakidis, P; Hughes, J (Elsevier, 2020-03-03)
    BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the use of bedaquiline and delamanid in adolescents with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB). We describe RR-TB treatment of adolescents (10-19 years) with injectable-free regimens containing these drugs in Khayelitsha, South Africa. METHODS: This retrospective study included adolescents initiating injectable-free RR-TB treatment regimens containing bedaquiline and/or delamanid from February 2015 to June 2018. We report adverse events (AEs) of interest, sputum culture conversion (SCC), and final end-of-treatment outcomes. FINDINGS: Twenty-two patients were included; median age at treatment initiation was 17 years (interquartile range [IQR] 15-18), and six (27%) were HIV-positive (median CD4 count 191 cells/mm3 [IQR 157-204]). Eight (36%) patients had RR-TB with fluoroquinolone resistance; ten (45%), eight (36%), and four (18%) patients received regimens containing bedaquiline, delamanid, or the combination of bedaquiline and delamanid, respectively. The median durations of exposure to bedaquiline and delamanid were 5·6 (IQR 5·5-8·4) and 9·4 (IQR 5·9-14·4) months, respectively. There were 49 AEs of interest which occurred in 17 (77%) patients. Fourteen (64%) patients had pulmonary TB with positive sputum cultures at bedaquiline and/or delamanid initiation; among these SCC at month 6 was 79%. Final end-of-treatment outcomes for the 22 adolescent were: 17 (77%) successfully treated, two (9%) lost-to-follow-up, two (9%) treatment failed, and one (5%) died. INTERPRETATION: This study found that injectable-free regimens containing bedaquiline and/or delamanid in a programmatic setting were effective and well tolerated in adolescents and should be routinely provided for RR-TB treatment in this age group as recommended by the World Health Organisation.
  • Injectable-free regimens containing bedaquiline, delamanid, or both for adolescents with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in Khayelitsha, South Africa

    Mohr-Holland, E; Reuter, S; Furin, J; Garcia-Prats, A; de Azevedo, V; Mudaly, V; Kock, Y; Trivino-Duran, L; Isaakidis, P; Hughes, J (Elsevier, 2020-03-03)
    BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the use of bedaquiline and delamanid in adolescents with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB). We describe RR-TB treatment of adolescents (10-19 years) with injectable-free regimens containing these drugs in Khayelitsha, South Africa. METHODS: This retrospective study included adolescents initiating injectable-free RR-TB treatment regimens containing bedaquiline and/or delamanid from February 2015 to June 2018. We report adverse events (AEs) of interest, sputum culture conversion (SCC), and final end-of-treatment outcomes. FINDINGS: Twenty-two patients were included; median age at treatment initiation was 17 years (interquartile range [IQR] 15-18), and six (27%) were HIV-positive (median CD4 count 191 cells/mm3 [IQR 157-204]). Eight (36%) patients had RR-TB with fluoroquinolone resistance; ten (45%), eight (36%), and four (18%) patients received regimens containing bedaquiline, delamanid, or the combination of bedaquiline and delamanid, respectively. The median durations of exposure to bedaquiline and delamanid were 5·6 (IQR 5·5-8·4) and 9·4 (IQR 5·9-14·4) months, respectively. There were 49 AEs of interest which occurred in 17 (77%) patients. Fourteen (64%) patients had pulmonary TB with positive sputum cultures at bedaquiline and/or delamanid initiation; among these SCC at month 6 was 79%. Final end-of-treatment outcomes for the 22 adolescent were: 17 (77%) successfully treated, two (9%) lost-to-follow-up, two (9%) treatment failed, and one (5%) died. INTERPRETATION: This study found that injectable-free regimens containing bedaquiline and/or delamanid in a programmatic setting were effective and well tolerated in adolescents and should be routinely provided for RR-TB treatment in this age group as recommended by the World Health Organisation.
  • Ocular adverse events in drug sensitive TB patients on daily fixed dose combination anti-TB drugs: A record review study from Kerala, India

    Manu, MS; Mehta, K; Das, M; Balakrishnan, S; Sunil Kumar, M; Rakesh, PS; Sindhu, MP; Valamparampil, MJ; Neena, PS; Satyanarayana, S (Elsevier, 2020-02-27)
    BACKGROUND:Government of India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) has begun implementing daily fixed dose combination (FDC) anti-TB treatment regimen for drug sensitive TB patients in which ethambutol is given for six months. Prolonged ethambutol use is known to cause ocular adverse drug events (ADE). OBJECTIVES:To assess the magnitude of ocular ADEs in adult drug sensitive TB patients initiated on daily FDCs and to describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients with ocular ADEs. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving review of RNTCP records of all adult (age >14 years) drug sensitive TB patients initiated on daily FDCs between1st January 2018 and 31st July 2018 in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala State, India. RESULTS:714 patients were initiated on daily FDCs during the study period. It was unknown whether all patients had undergone assessment for ocular ADEs. However, of these 714 patients, 8 patients (1.1%) were documented to have had ocular ADEs. Seven of these 8 patients had received ethambutol more than 15 mg/kg body weight and had developed ocular symptoms (decreased/blurring of vision) 3 months after TB treatment initiation. Ethambutol was stopped in all these 8 patients. In 5 patients it was recorded that ocular ADEs had resolved following stoppage of ethambutol and in the remaining it was unknown. CONCLUSION:The study confirms the occurrence of ocular ADEs among drug sensitive TB patients on daily FDCs and recommends strengthening of systems for assessing, documenting and managing ocular ADE.
  • MDR/XDR-TB management of patients and contacts: challenges facing the new decade. The 2020 clinical update by the Global Tuberculosis Network.

    Battista Migliori, G; Tiberi, S; Zumla, A; Petersen, E; Muhwa Chakaya, J; Wejse, C; Muñoz Torrico, M; Duarte, R; Alffenaar, JW; Schaaf, HS; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-02-04)
    The continuous flow of new research articles on MDR-TB diagnosis, treatment, prevention and rehabilitation requires frequent update of existing guidelines. This review is aimed at providing clinicians and public health staff with an updated and easy-to-consult document arising from consensus of Global Tuberculosis Network (GTN) experts. The core published documents and guidelines have been reviewed including the recently published MDR-TB WHO rapid advice and ATS/CDC/ERS/IDSA guidelines. After a rapid review of epidemiology and risk factors, the clinical priorities on MDR-TB diagnosis (including whole genome sequencing and drug-susceptibility testing interpretations) and treatment (treatment design and management, TB in children) are discussed. Furthermore, the review comprehensively describes the latest information on contact tracing and LTBI management in MDR-TB contacts, while providing guidance on post-treatment functional evaluation and rehabilitation of TB sequelae, infection control and other public health priorities.
  • Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic algorithms including lateral-flow urine lipoarabinomannan for HIV-positive patients with symptoms of tuberculosis

    Yakhelef, N; Audibert, M; Ferlazzo, G; Sitienei, J; Wanjala, S; Varaine, F; Bonnet, M; Huerga, H (Public Library of Science, 2020-01-30)
    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among HIV-positive patients. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of including lateral-flow urine lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) in TB diagnostic algorithms for severely ill or immunosuppressed HIV-positive patients with symptoms of TB in Kenya. METHODS: From a decision-analysis tree, ten diagnostic algorithms were elaborated and compared. All algorithms included clinical exam. The costs of each algorithm were calculated using a 'micro-costing' method. The efficacy was estimated through a prospective study that included severely ill or immunosuppressed (CD4<200cells/μL) HIV-positive adults with symptoms of TB. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted as effectiveness outcome. A 4% discount rate was applied. RESULTS: The algorithm that added LF-LAM alone to the clinical exam lead to the least average cost per TB case detected (€47) and was the most cost-effective with a cost/DALY averted of €4.6. The algorithms including LF-LAM, microscopy and X-ray, and LF-LAM and Xpert in sputum, detected a high number of TB cases with a cost/DALY averted of €6.1 for each of them. In the comparisons of the algorithms two by two, using LF-LAM instead of microscopy (clinic&LAM vs clinic&microscopy) and using LF-LAM along with GeneXpert in sputum instead of GeneXpert in urine along with GeneXpert in sputum, (clinic&LAM&Xpert_sputum vs clinic&Xpert_sputum&Xpert_urine) led to the highest increase in the cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs): €-7.2 and €-12.6 respectively. In these two comparisons, using LF-LAM increased the number of TB patients detected while reducing costs. Adding LF-LAM to smear microscopy alone or to smear microscopy and Xray led to the highest increase in the additional number of TB cases detected (31 and 25 respectively) with an incremental efficiency estimated at 134 and 344 DALYs respectively. The ICERs were €22.0 and €8.6 respectively. CONCLUSION: Including LF-LAM in TB diagnostic algorithms is cost-effective for severely ill or immunosuppressed HIV-positive patients.
  • Non-disclosure of tuberculosis diagnosis by patients to their household members in south western Uganda

    Nyangoma, M; Bajunirwe, F; Atwine, D (Public Library of Science, 2020-01-24)
    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) non-disclosure by adult patients to all household members is a setback to TB control efforts. It reduces the likelihood that household contacts will seek early TB screening, initiation on preventive or curative treatment, but also hinders the implementation of infection controls and home-based directly observed treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the level of TB non-disclosure, its predictors and the effects of disclosure among adult TB patients in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a large regional referral hospital in Mbarara, south-western Uganda. Questionnaires were administered to collect patients' sociodemographic and their TB disclosure data. Non-disclosure was considered if a patient did not reveal their TB diagnosis to all household members within 2 weeks post-treatment initiation. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted for predictors of non-disclosure. RESULTS: We enrolled 62 patients, 74% males, mean age of 32 years, and median of five people per household. Non-disclosure rate was 30.6%. Post-disclosure experiences were positive in 98.3% of patients, while negative experiences suggestive of severe stigma occurred in 12.3% of patients. Being female (OR 6.5, 95% CI: 1.4-29.3) and belonging to Muslim faith (OR 12.4, 95% CI: 1.42-109.1) were significantly associated with TB non-disclosure to household members. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high rate of TB non-disclosure to all household members by adult patients in rural Uganda, particularly among women and muslim patients. Interventions enhancing TB disclosure at household level while minimizing negative effects of stigma should be developed and prioritized.
  • Systematic, Point-of-Care Urine Lipoarabinomannan (Alere TB-LAM) Assay for Diagnosing Tuberculosis in Severely Immunocompromised HIV-Positive Ambulatory Patients

    Huerga, H; Cossa, L; Manhica, I; Bastard, M; Telnov, A; Molfino, L; Sanchez-Padilla, E (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2020-01-20)
    Point-of-care urine-lipoarabinomannan (LAM) Alere Determine TB-LAM assay has shown utility diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-positive, severely immunocompromised, TB-symptomatic patients. We assessed LAM results in severely immunocompromised patients, who had LAM systematically performed at new or follow-up HIV consultations. This was a prospective, observational study on consecutive ambulatory, > 15-year-old HIV-positive patients with CD4 < 100 cells/µL in Mozambique. Clinical assessments and LAM were performed for all and microscopy, Xpert, sputum culture, and chest X-ray for LAM-positive participants. Patients were followed up for 6 months. Of 360 patients, half were ART-naive. Lipoarabinomannan positivity was 11.9% (43/360), higher among symptomatic patients compared with asymptomatic: 18.5% (30/162), and 6.6% (13/198), respectively, P = 0.001. Tuberculosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 6/35 LAM-positive patients (2 of them asymptomatic). Lipoarabinomannan positivity was associated with higher risk of mortality (aOR:4.48, 95% CI: 1.24-16.23, P = 0.022). Systematic urine-LAM allows for rapid TB treatment initiation in severely immunocompromised HIV ambulatory patients and identifies patients at a higher risk of death.
  • Tuberculosis-HIV Co-Infection: Progress and Challenges After Two Decades of Global Antiretroviral Treatment Roll-Out.

    Letang, E; Ellis, J; Naidoo, K; Casas, EC; Sanchez, P; Hassan-Moosa, R; Cresswell, F; Miro, JM; Garcia-Basteiro, AL (Elsevier, 2020-01-10)
    Despite wide antiretroviral scale-up during the past two decades resulting in declining new infections and mortality globally, HIV-associated tuberculosis remains as a major public health concern. Tuberculosis is the leading HIV-associated opportunistic infection and the main cause of death globally and, particularly, in resource-limited settings. Several challenges exist regarding diagnosis, global implementation of latent tuberculosis treatment, management of active tuberculosis, delivery of optimal patient-centered TB and HIV prevention and care in high burden countries. In this article we review the advances on pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment after nearly two decades of global roll-out of antiretroviral therapy and discuss the current challenges for the global control of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection.
  • 'SILVAMP TB LAM' rapid urine tuberculosis test predicts mortality in hospitalized HIV patients in South Africa.

    Sossen, B; Broger, T; Kerkhoff, AD; Schutz, C; Trollip, A; Moreau, E; Schumacher, SG; Burton, R; Ward, A; Wilkinson, RJ; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2020-01-09)
    Reducing diagnostic delay is key towards decreasing tuberculosis-associated deaths in people living with HIV. In tuberculosis patients with retrospective urine testing, the point-of-care Fujifilm SILVAMP TB LAM (FujiLAM) could have rapidly diagnosed tuberculosis in up to 89% who died. In FujiLAM negative patients, the probability of 12-week survival was 86-97%.

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