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Treatment correlates of successful outcomes in pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: an individual patient data meta-analysisBACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis remain poor. We aimed to estimate the association of treatment success and death with the use of individual drugs, and the optimal number and duration of treatment with those drugs in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: In this individual patient data meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify potentially eligible observational and experimental studies published between Jan 1, 2009, and April 30, 2016. We also searched reference lists from all systematic reviews of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis published since 2009. To be eligible, studies had to report original results, with end of treatment outcomes (treatment completion [success], failure, or relapse) in cohorts of at least 25 adults (aged >18 years). We used anonymised individual patient data from eligible studies, provided by study investigators, regarding clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. Using propensity score-matched generalised mixed effects logistic, or linear regression, we calculated adjusted odds ratios and adjusted risk differences for success or death during treatment, for specific drugs currently used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, as well as the number of drugs used and treatment duration. FINDINGS: Of 12 030 patients from 25 countries in 50 studies, 7346 (61%) had treatment success, 1017 (8%) had failure or relapse, and 1729 (14%) died. Compared with failure or relapse, treatment success was positively associated with the use of linezolid (adjusted risk difference 0·15, 95% CI 0·11 to 0·18), levofloxacin (0·15, 0·13 to 0·18), carbapenems (0·14, 0·06 to 0·21), moxifloxacin (0·11, 0·08 to 0·14), bedaquiline (0·10, 0·05 to 0·14), and clofazimine (0·06, 0·01 to 0·10). There was a significant association between reduced mortality and use of linezolid (-0·20, -0·23 to -0·16), levofloxacin (-0·06, -0·09 to -0·04), moxifloxacin (-0·07, -0·10 to -0·04), or bedaquiline (-0·14, -0·19 to -0·10). Compared with regimens without any injectable drug, amikacin provided modest benefits, but kanamycin and capreomycin were associated with worse outcomes. The remaining drugs were associated with slight or no improvements in outcomes. Treatment outcomes were significantly worse for most drugs if they were used despite in-vitro resistance. The optimal number of effective drugs seemed to be five in the initial phase, and four in the continuation phase. In these adjusted analyses, heterogeneity, based on a simulated I2 method, was high for approximately half the estimates for specific drugs, although relatively low for number of drugs and durations analyses. INTERPRETATION: Although inferences are limited by the observational nature of these data, treatment outcomes were significantly better with use of linezolid, later generation fluoroquinolones, bedaquiline, clofazimine, and carbapenems for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. These findings emphasise the need for trials to ascertain the optimal combination and duration of these drugs for treatment of this condition.
'I didn't know so many people cared about me': support for patients who interrupt drug-resistant TB treatment.SETTING: Early interventions for patients who interrupt their treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) are rarely reported and assessed. A novel, patient-centred intervention for patients at risk of loss to follow-up (LTFU) from DR-TB treatment was implemented in Khayelitsha, South Africa, in September 2013. OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences and perceptions of patients, key support persons, health care workers (HCWs) and programme managers of a patient-centred model. DESIGN: This was a qualitative study consisting of 18 in-depth interviews with patients, key support persons, HCWs, key informants and one focus group discussion with HCWs, between July and September 2017. Data were coded and thematically analysed. RESULTS: The model was well perceived and viewed positively by patients, care providers and programme managers. 'Normalisation' and tolerance of occasional treatment interruptions, tracing, tailored management plans and peer support were perceived to be beneficial for retaining patients in care. Although the model was resource-demanding, health workers were convinced that it 'needs to be sustained,' and proposed solutions for its standardisation. CONCLUSION: An intervention based on early tracing of patients who interrupt treatment, peer-delivered counselling and individualised management plans by a multidisciplinary team was considered a beneficial and acceptable model to support patients at risk of LTFU from DR-TB treatment.
Delamanid for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis: a retrospective study from South Africa.Experience with delamanid (Dlm) is limited, particularly among HIV-positive individuals. We describe early efficacy and safety data from a programmatic setting in South Africa. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients receiving Dlm-containing treatment regimens between November 2015 and August 2017. We report 12-month interim outcomes, sputum culture conversion (SCC) by months 2 and 6, serious adverse events (SAEs) and QT intervals corrected using the Frederica formula (QTcF). Overall, 103 patients were initiated on Dlm; 79 (77%) were HIV positive. The main indication for Dlm was intolerance to second-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs (n=58, 56%). There were 12 months of follow-up for 46 patients; 28 (61%) had a favourable outcome (cure, treatment completion or culture negativity). Positive cultures were found for 57 patients at Dlm initiation; 16 out of 31 (52%) had SCC within 2 months and 25 out of 31 (81%) within 6 months. There were 67 SAEs reported in 29 patients (28%). There were four instances of QTcF prolongation >500 ms in two patients (2%), leading to permanent discontinuation in one case; however, no cardiac arrhythmias occurred. This large cohort of difficult-to-treat patients receiving Dlm for rifampicin-resistant TB treatment in a programmatic setting with high HIV prevalence had favourable early treatment response and tolerated treatment well. Dlm should remain available, particularly for those who cannot be treated with conventional regimens or with limited treatment options.