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Tuberculosis-HIV Co-Infection: Progress and Challenges After Two Decades of Global Antiretroviral Treatment Roll-Out.Despite wide antiretroviral scale-up during the past two decades resulting in declining new infections and mortality globally, HIV-associated tuberculosis remains as a major public health concern. Tuberculosis is the leading HIV-associated opportunistic infection and the main cause of death globally and, particularly, in resource-limited settings. Several challenges exist regarding diagnosis, global implementation of latent tuberculosis treatment, management of active tuberculosis, delivery of optimal patient-centered TB and HIV prevention and care in high burden countries. In this article we review the advances on pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment after nearly two decades of global roll-out of antiretroviral therapy and discuss the current challenges for the global control of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection.