• Operational challenges in managing Isoniazid Preventive Therapy in child contacts: A high-burden setting perspective.

      van Wyk, S S; Reid, A J; Mandalakas, A M; Enarson, D A; Beyers, N; Morrison, J; Hesseling, A C (2011-07-08)
      ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The study was conducted at a high TB-HIV burden primary health community clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. We describe the management of children under five years of age in household contact with a smear and/or culture-positive adult TB case. METHODS: This study was a record review of routinely-collected programme data. RESULTS: A total of 1094 adult TB case folders were reviewed. From all identified contacts, 149 children should have received IPT based on local guidelines; in only 2/149 IPT was initiated. Management of child contacts of sputum smear and/or culture-positive compared to sputum-negative TB patients were similar. CONCLUSIONS: IPT delivery to children remains an operational challenge, especially in high TB-HIV burden communities. A tool to improve IPT management and targeting sputum smear and/or culture-positive TB child contacts may overcome some of these challenges and should be developed and piloted in such settings.
    • The timing of death in patients with tuberculosis who die during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Andhra Pradesh, South India

      Jonnalagada, S; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R; Satyanarayana, S; Tetali, S; Keshav Chander, G; Rao, S; Rao, R; Peri, S; Anchala, R; et al. (BioMed Central, 2011-12-13)
      Background: India has 2.0 million estimated tuberculosis (TB) cases per annum with an estimated 280,000 TBrelated deaths per year. Understanding when in the course of TB treatment patients die is important for determining the type of intervention to be offered and crucially when this intervention should be given. The objectives of the current study were to determine in a large cohort of TB patients in India:- i) treatment outcomes including the number who died while on treatment, ii) the month of death and iii) characteristics associated with “early” death, occurring in the initial 8 weeks of treatment. Methods: This was a retrospective study in 16 selected Designated Microscopy Centres (DMCs) in Hyderabad, Krishna and Adilabad districts of Andhra Pradesh, South India. A review was performed of treatment cards and medical records of all TB patients (adults and children) registered and placed on standardized anti-tuberculosis treatment from January 2005 to September 2009. Results: There were 8,240 TB patients (5183 males) of whom 492 (6%) were known to have died during treatment. Case-fatality was higher in those previously treated (12%) and lower in those with extra-pulmonary TB (2%). There was an even distribution of deaths during anti-tuberculosis treatment, with 28% of all patients dying in the first 8 weeks of treatment. Increasing age and new as compared to recurrent TB disease were significantly associated with “early death”. Conclusion: In this large cohort of TB patients, deaths occurred with an even frequency throughout anti-TB treatment. Reasons may relate to i) the treatment of the disease itself, raising concerns about drug adherence, quality of anti-tuberculosis drugs or the presence of undetected drug resistance and ii) co-morbidities, such as HIV/ AIDS and diabetes mellitus, which are known to influence mortality. More research in this area from prospective and retrospective studies is needed.