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Drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a national referral hospital, Phnom Penh, CambodiaThere are no recent data on the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) in Cambodia. We aim to describe TB drug resistance amongst adults with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in a national referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
Feasibility of using Determine TB-LAM to diagnose tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients in programmatic conditions: a multisite study.Background: Determine TB-LAM is a urine-based point-of-care assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Objective: To assess the feasibility of using LAM to diagnose TB in adult HIV-positive patients in resource-limited settings. Methods: We performed a multi-centric mixed-methods cross-sectional descriptive study in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, and Mozambique. We used the study and program monitoring tools to estimate user workload, turn-around time (TAT), and proportion of patients with LAM and sputum-based results. We conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the user acceptability of the LAM. Results: The duration of the LAM testing activity per patient was 27 min (IQR 26-29); staff continued with other duties whilst waiting for the result. More patients had a LAM versus a sputum-based result: 168/213 (78.9%) vs 77/213 (36.1%), p < 0.001 in DRC; 691/695 (99.4%) vs 429/695 (61.7%), p < 0.001 in Malawi; and 646/647 (99.8%) vs 262/647 (40.5%), p < 0.001 in Mozambique. The median TAT in minutes when LAM was performed in the consultation room was 75 (IQR 45-188) in DRC, 29 (IQR 27-39) in Malawi, and 36 (IQR 35-41) in Mozambique. In comparison, the overall median TAT for sputum-based tests (smear or GeneXpert) was 2 (IQR 1-3) days. The median time to the first anti-TB drug dose for LAM-positive patients was 155 (IQR 90-504) minutes in DRC and 90 (IQR 60-117) minutes in Mozambique. The overall inter-reader agreement for the interpretation of the LAM result as positive or negative was 98.9%, kappa 0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.99). Overall, LAM users found the test easy to perform. Major concerns were use of the reading card and the prior requirement of CD4 results before LAM testing. Conclusion: It is feasible to implement the LAM test in low resource settings. The short TAT permitted same day initiation of TB treatment for LAM-positive patients.
Operational research within a Global Fund supported tuberculosis project in India: why, how and its contribution towards change in policy and practice.BACKGROUND: The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices. OBJECTIVES: To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice. METHODS: From September 2010 to September 2016, three key OR-related activities were implemented. First, practical output-oriented modular training courses were conducted (n = 3) to build research capacity of personnel involved in the TB programme, co-facilitated by The Union, in collaboration with the national TB programme, WHO country office and CDC, Atlanta. Second, two large-scale Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) surveys were conducted at baseline and mid-project to assess the changes pertaining to TB knowledge, attitudes and practices among the general population, TB patients and health care providers over the project period. Third, studies were conducted to describe the project's core activities and outcomes. RESULTS: In the training courses, 44 participant teams were supported to develop research protocols on topics of national priority, resulting in 28 peer-reviewed scientific publications. The KAP surveys and description of project activities resulted in 14 peer-reviewed publications. Of the published papers at least 12 have influenced change in policy or practice. CONCLUSIONS: OR within a Global Fund supported TB project has resulted in building OR capacity, facilitating research in areas of national priority and influencing policy and practice. We believe this experience will provide guidance for undertaking OR in Global Fund projects.
Paragonimiasis in Tuberculosis Patients in Nagaland, IndiaOne of the infections that mimic tuberculosis (TB) is paragonimiasis (PRG), a foodborne parasitic disease caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In the northeastern states of India, TB and PRG are endemic; however, PRG is rarely included in the differential diagnosis of TB.