• Bedaquiline and delamanid in combination for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis

      Mohr, E; Ferlazzo, G; Hewison, C; De Azevedo, V; Isaakidis, P (Elsevier, 2019-05-01)
      Here we report on the final outcomes for the cohort of 28 patients from Armenia, India, and South Africa who initiated regimens containing the combination of bedaquiline and delamanid from January to August, 2016, for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in our cohort study.1 The median duration on combination treatment was 12 months (interquartile range [IQR] 5·9–20·0); 17 (61%) of 28 patients received the combination for more than 6 months.
    • Decentralisation of multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis care and management [letter]

      Cox, H; Ford, N; Médecins Sans Frontières, Cape Town, South Africa; Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, South Africa. (Elsevier, 2013-06-03)
    • Drug-resistant tuberculosis: time for visionary political leadership

      Abubakar, I; Zignol, M; Falzon, D; Raviglione, M; Ditiu, L; Masham, S; Adetifa, I; Ford, N; Cox, H; Lawn, S D; et al. (Elsevier, 2013-03-24)
      Two decades ago, WHO declared tuberculosis a global emergency, and invested in the highly cost-effective directly observed treatment short-course programme to control the epidemic. At that time, most strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were susceptible to first-line tuberculosis drugs, and drug resistance was not a major issue. However, in 2013, tuberculosis remains a major public health concern worldwide, with prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis rising. WHO estimates roughly 630 000 cases of MDR tuberculosis worldwide, with great variation in the frequency of MDR tuberculosis between countries. In the past 8 years, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis has emerged, and has been reported in 84 countries, heralding the possibility of virtually untreatable tuberculosis. Increased population movement, the continuing HIV pandemic, and the rise in MDR tuberculosis pose formidable challenges to the global control of tuberculosis. We provide an overview of the global burden of drug-resistant disease; discuss the social, health service, management, and control issues that fuel and sustain the epidemic; and suggest specific recommendations for important next steps. Visionary political leadership is needed to curb the rise of MDR and XDR tuberculosis worldwide, through sustained funding and the implementation of global and regional action plans.
    • Eye Examination for Early Diagnosis of Disseminated Tuberculosis in Patients with AIDS

      Heiden, D; Saranchuk, P; Keenan, JbD; Ford, N; Lowinger, A; Yen, M; McCune, J; Rao, N A (Elsevier, 2016-02-18)
      Choroidal tuberculosis is present in 5-20% of patients with disseminated tuberculosis, and point-of-care dilated binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy eye examination can provide immediate diagnosis. In geographical areas of high tuberculosis prevalence and in susceptible patients (CD4 counts less than 200 cells per μL) detection of choroidal granulomas should be accepted as evidence of disseminated tuberculosis. With training and proper support, eye screening can be done by HIV/AIDS clinicians, allowing early tuberculosis treatment. In regions with a high burden of tuberculosis, we recommend that eye screening be a standard part of the initial assessment of susceptible patients, including at a minimum all patients with HIV/AIDS with CD4 less than 100 cells per μL with or without eye symptoms, and with or without suspicion of disseminated tuberculosis.
    • Linezolid for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

      Cox, H; Ford, N; Hughes, J; Goemaere, E (2013-01)
    • MDR tuberculosis and non-compliance with therapy (correspondence)

      Cox, H; Hughes, J; Ford, N; London, L; Medecins Sans Frontieres (Elsevier, 2012-03)
    • MDR tuberculosis and non-compliance with therapy.

      Cox, H; Hughes, J; Ford, N; London, L; Médecins Sans Frontières, Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa; and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa (Elservier, 2012-03)
    • Moxifloxacin for tuberculosis - Authors' reply.

      Cox, H; Ford, N; von Schoen-Angerer, T; Médecins Sans Frontières, Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa; University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Médecins Sans Frontières Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines, Geneva, Switzerland (Elsevier, 2012-03)
    • Rational use of moxifloxacin for tuberculosis treatment

      Cox, H; Ford, N; Keshavjee, S; McDermid, C; von Schoen-Angerer, T; Mitnick, C; Goemaere, E; Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Médecins Sans Frontières, Johannesburg, South Africa; Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA; Partners in Health, Boston, USA; Médecins Sans Frontières Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines, Geneva, Switzerland (2011-04-01)
    • Towards Early Inclusion of Children in Tuberculosis Drugs Trials: A Consensus Statement

      Nachman, S; Ahmed, A; Amanullah, F; Becerra, M C; Botgros, R; Brigden, G; Browning, R; Gardiner, E; Hafner, R; Hesseling, A; et al. (Elsevier, 2015-06)
      Children younger than 18 years account for a substantial proportion of patients with tuberculosis worldwide. Available treatments for paediatric drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis, albeit generally effective, are hampered by high pill burden, long duration of treatment, coexistent toxic effects, and an overall scarcity of suitable child-friendly formulations. Several new drugs and regimens with promising activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains have entered clinical development and are either in various phases of clinical investigation or have received marketing authorisation for adults; however, none have data on their use in children. This consensus statement, generated from an international panel of opinion leaders on childhood tuberculosis and incorporating reviews of published literature from January, 2004, to May, 2014, addressed four key questions: what drugs or regimens should be prioritised for clinical trials in children? Which populations of children are high priorities for study? When can phase 1 or 2 studies be initiated in children? What are the relevant elements of clinical trial design? The consensus panel found that children can be included in studies at the early phases of drug development and should be an integral part of the clinical development plan, rather than studied after regulatory approval in adults is obtained.
    • Treatment outcomes for children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Ettehad, D; Schaaf, H S; Seddon, J A; Cooke, G S; Ford, N (Elsevier, 2012-02)