• Are sputum samples of retreatment tuberculosis reaching the reference laboratories? A 9-year audit in Tanzania

      Kilale, A M; Ngowi, B J; Mfinanga, G S; Egwaga, S; Doulla, B; Kumar, A M V; Khogali, M; van Griensven, J; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R; et al. (2013-06-21)
    • Assessing and improving data quality from community health workers: a successful intervention in Neno, Malawi

      Admon, A J; Bazile, J; Makungwa, H; Chingoli, M A; Hirschhorn, L R; Peckarsky, M; Rigodon, J; Herce, M; Chingoli, F; Malani, P N; et al. (International Union Against TB and Lung Disease, 2013-03)
    • Barriers and solutions to finding rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis cases in older children and adolescents

      Mohr-Holland, E; Apolisi, I; Reuter, A; de Azevedo, V; Hill, J; Matthee, S; Seddon, JA; Isaakidis, P; Furin, J; Trivino-Duran, L (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2019-12-21)
      Little is known about the barriers to post-exposure management of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) in older children and adolescents. We report on implementation lessons from a pilot programme targeting household-exposed individuals aged 6–18 years in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Barriers included misperceptions regarding risk of exposure, multiple research and implementation stakeholders, additional workload for an overburdened healthcare system, logistical issues faced by families, and insufficient human and financial resources. Solutions to these barriers are possible, but creativity and persistence are required. Our experience can guide others looking to roll-out care for children and adolescents exposed to RR-TB.
    • The burden and outcomes of childhood tuberculosis in Cotonou, Benin

      Ade, S; Harries, A D; Trébucq, A; Hinderaker, S G; Ade, G; Agodokpessi, G; Affolabi, D; Koumakpaï, S; Anagonou, S; Gninafon, M (International Union Against TB and Lung Disease, 2013-03)
    • The burden and treatment outcomes of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Bhutan

      Jamtsho, T; Harries, A D; Malhotra, S; Wangchuk, D; Dophu, U; Dorji, T; Dendup, T (2013-03)
    • Characteristics and outcomes of tuberculosis patients who fail to smear convert at two months in Sri Lanka

      Jayakody, W; Harries, A D; Malhotra, S; de Alwis, S; Samaraweera, S; Pallewatta, N (2013-03)
    • Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis retreatment cases in three regional hospitals, Uganda

      Nakanwagi-Mukwaya, A; Reid, A J; Fujiwara, P I; Mugabe, F; Kosgei, R J; Tayler-Smith, K; Kizito, W; Joloba, M (2013-06)
    • Decline in national tuberculosis notifications with national scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Malawi

      Kanyerere, H; Mganga, A; Harries, A D; Tayler-Smith, K; Jahn, A; Chimbwandira, F M; Mpunga, J (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2014-06-21)
    • Detecting tuberculosis: rapid tools but slow progress

      England, K; Masini, T; Rajardo, E (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2019-09-21)
      The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends Xpert® MTB/RIF as the initial test for all people with presumptive tuberculosis (TB). A number of challenges have been reported, however, in using this technology, particularly in low-resource settings. Here we examine these challenges, and provide our perspective of the barriers to Xpert scale-up as assessed through a survey in 16 TB burden countries in which the Médecins Sans Frontières is present. We observed that the key barriers to scale-up include a lack of policy adoption and implementation of WHO recommendations for the use of Xpert, resulting from high costs, poor sensitisation of clinical staff and a high turnover of trained laboratory staff; insufficient service and maintenance provision provided by the manufacturer; and inadequate resources for sustainability and expansion. Funding is a critical issue as countries begin to transition out of support from the Global Fund. While it is clear that there is still an urgent need for research into and development of a rapid, affordable point-of-care test for TB that is truly adapted for use in low-resource settings, countries in the meantime need to develop functional and sustainable Xpert networks in order to close the existing diagnostic gap.
    • Diabetes mellitus and smoking among tuberculosis patients in a tertiary care centre in Karnataka, India

      Jali, M V; Mahishale, V K; Hiremath, M B; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Nagaraja, S B; Isaakidis, P (International Union Against TB and Lung Disease, 2013-11)
    • Diagnostic management and outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis suspects admitted to a central hospital in Malawi

      Gawa, L G; Reid, T; Edginton, M E; Van Lettow, M; Joshua, M; Harries, A D (TB Union, 2012-01-25)
    • Does the type of treatment supporter influence tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Zimbabwe? [Short communication]

      Mlilo, N; Sandy, C; Harries, A D; Kumar, A M V; Masuka, N; Nyathi, B; Edginton, M; Isaakidis, P; Manzi, M; Siziba, N (Public Health Action, 2013-06-21)
      Zimbabwe is one of the world’s 22 high tuberculosis(TB) burden countries, and ⩾60% of its TB patients are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).1 In 2010, the treatment success rate for new sputum smear-positive TB patients was 81%, lower than the 90% rate recommended by the new Global Plan to Stop TB.The World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Stop TB strategy recommends supervised treatment and support,including direct observation of treatment (DOT), ensuring that every dose of medication is swallowed under observation. The Zimbabwean National TB Guidelines recommend that DOT should be provided, in order of priority, by a health facility-based worker, a trained community worker or a family member/relative as a last resort, with the belief that untrained family members/relatives might not be the best people to perform DOT. However, health facility-based DOT may be challenging due to distances travelled by patients,time spent away from home/work and transport costs.Studies in Thailand, Nepal, Malawi and Tanzania have shown that family- or community-based DOT is associated with good treatment outcomes.There is no published information on whether TB treatment outcomes are infl uenced by different types of DOT supporter in Zimbabwe. We therefore conducted this study in a district of Zimbabwe to describe 1) the number and proportions of registered TB patients receiving different types of DOT in relation to baseline characteristics and 2) the association of different types of DOT with TB treatment outcomes.
    • Double Trouble: Tuberculosis and Substance Abuse in Nagaland, India

      Shenoy, R; Das, M; Mansoor, H; Anicete, R; Wangshu, L; Meren, S; Ao, I; Saranchuk, P; Reid, A J; Isaakidis, P (International Union Against TB and Lung Disease, 2015-09-21)
    • Epidemiology and interaction of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis and challenges for care: a review [Review article]

      Harries, A D; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Nagaraja, S B; Isaakidis, P; Malhotra, S; Achanta, S; Naik, B; Wilson, N; Zachariah, R; et al. (International Union Against TB and Lung Disease, 2013-11)
    • The Experience of Bedaquiline Implementation at a Decentralised Clinic in South Africa

      Cariem, R; Cox, V; de Azevedo, V; Hughes, J; Mohr, E; Durán, LT; Ndjeka, N; Furin, J (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2016-09-21)
    • High prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes among tuberculosis patients in peripheral health facilities in Kerala

      Nair, S; Kumari, A K; Subramonianpillai, J; Shabna, D S; Kumar, S M; Balakrishnan, S; Naik, B; Kumar, A M V; Isaakidis, P; Satyanarayana, S (International Union Against TB and Lung Disease, 2013-11)
    • Infection control in households of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients co-infected with HIV in Mumbai, India

      Albuquerque, T; Isaakidis, P; Das, M; Saranchuk, P; Andries, A; Misquita, D P; Khan, S; Dubois, S; Peskett, C; Browne, M (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2014-03)
      Background: Mumbai has a population of 21 million, and an increasingly recognised epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Objective: To describe TB infection control (IC) measures implemented in households of DR-TB patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) under a Médecins Sans Frontières programme. Methods: IC assessments were carried out in patient households between May 2012 and March 2013. A simplified,standardised assessment tool was utilised to assess the risk of TB transmission and guide interventions. Administrative, environmental and personal protective measures were tailored to patient needs. Results: IC assessments were carried out in 29 houses.Measures included health education, segregating sleeping areas of patients, improving natural ventilation by opening windows, removing curtains and obstacles to air flow, installing fans and air extractors and providing surgical masks to patients for limited periods. Environmental interventions were carried out in 22 houses. Conclusions: TB IC could be a beneficial component of a comprehensive TB and HIV care programme in households and communities. Although particularly challenging in slum settings, IC measures that are feasible, affordable and acceptable can be implemented in such settings using simplified and standardised tools. Appropriate IC interventions at household level may prevent new cases of DR-TB, especially in households of patients with a lower chance of cure.
    • Is screening for diabetes among tuberculosis patients feasible at the field level?

      Naik, B; Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Suryakant, M D; Swamy, N M V; Nair, S; Isaakidis, P; Harries, A D (International Union Against TB and Lung Disease, 2013-11)
    • Operational research leading to rapid national policy change: tuberculosis-diabetes collaboration in India

      Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Wilson, N C; Chadha, S S; Gupta, D; Nair, S; Zachariah, R; Kapur, A; Harries, A D (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2014-06-21)
    • Pre-treatment loss to follow-up among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases: a 10-year audit of national data from Fiji

      Ram, S; Kishore, K; Batio, I; Bissell, K; Zachariah, R; Satyanarayana, S; Harries, A D (TB Union, 2013-02-14)