• Ecological study of socio-economic indicators and prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren in urban Brazil.

      da Cunha, S S; Pujades-Rodriguez, M; Barreto, M L; Genser, B; Rodrigues, L C; Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal de Bahia, Salvador, Brazil. cunhass@ufba.br (2007)
      BACKGROUND: There is evidence of higher prevalence of asthma in populations of lower socio-economic status in affluent societies, and the prevalence of asthma is also very high in some Latin American countries, where societies are characterized by a marked inequality in wealth. This study aimed to examine the relationship between estimates of asthma prevalence based on surveys conducted in children in Brazilian cities and health and socioeconomic indicators measured at the population level in the same cities. METHODS: We searched the literature in the medical databases and in the annals of scientific meeting, retrieving population-based surveys of asthma that were conducted in Brazil using the methodology defined by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. We performed separate analyses for the age groups 6-7 years and 13-14 years. We examined the association between asthma prevalence rates and eleven health and socio-economic indicators by visual inspection and using linear regression models weighed by the inverse of the variance of each survey. RESULTS: Six health and socioeconomic variables showed a clear pattern of association with asthma. The prevalence of asthma increased with poorer sanitation and with higher infant mortality at birth and at survey year, GINI index and external mortality. In contrast, asthma prevalence decreased with higher illiteracy rates. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of asthma in urban areas of Brazil, a middle income country, appears to be higher in cities with more marked poverty or inequality.
    • Elevation and cholera: an epidemiological spatial analysis of the cholera epidemic in Harare, Zimbabwe, 2008-2009

      Luque Fernandez, Miguel A; Schomaker, Michael; Mason, Peter R; Fesselet, Jean F; Baudot, Yves; Boulle, Andrew; Maes, Peter (2012-06)
    • The factors affecting household transmission dynamics and community compliance with Ebola control measures: a mixed-methods study in a rural village in Sierra Leone

      Caleo, G; Duncombe, J; Jephcott, F; Lokuge, K; Mills, C; Looijen, E; Theoharaki, F; Kremer, R; Kleijer, K; Squire, J; et al. (BioMed Central, 2018-02-13)
      Little is understood of Ebola virus disease (EVD) transmission dynamics and community compliance with control measures over time. Understanding these interactions is essential if interventions are to be effective in future outbreaks. We conducted a mixed-methods study to explore these factors in a rural village that experienced sustained EVD transmission in Kailahun District, Sierra Leone.
    • Spatial epidemiology and climatic predictors of paediatric dengue infections captured via sentinel site surveillance, Phnom Penh Cambodia 2011-2012.

      Lover, Andrew A; Buchy, Philippe; Rachline, Anne; Moniboth, Duch; Huy, Rekol; Meng, Chour Y; Leo, Yee Sin; Yuvatha, Kdan; Sophal, Ung; Chantha, Ngan; et al. (2014-06-28)
      Dengue is a major contributor to morbidity in children aged twelve and below throughout Cambodia; the 2012 epidemic season was the most severe in the country since 2007, with more than 42,000 reported (suspect or confirmed) cases.
    • Sub-national variation in measles vaccine coverage and outbreak risk: a case study from a 2010 outbreak in Malawi

      Kundrick, A; Huang, Z; Carran, S; Kagoli, M; Grais, RFF; Hurtado, N; Ferrari, M (BioMed Central, 2018-06-15)
      Despite progress towards increasing global vaccination coverage, measles continues to be one of the leading, preventable causes of death among children worldwide. Whether and how to target sub-national areas for vaccination campaigns continues to remain a question. We analyzed three metrics for prioritizing target areas: vaccination coverage, susceptible birth cohort, and the effective reproductive ratio (RE) in the context of the 2010 measles epidemic in Malawi.
    • Using European Travellers as an Early Alert to Detect Emerging Pathogens in Countries with Limited Laboratory Resources.

      Guerin, P J; Grais, RF; Rottingen, J A; Valleron, A J; Division of Infectious Disease Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. philippe.guerin@epicentre.msf.org (2007)
      BACKGROUND: The volume, extent and speed of travel have dramatically increased in the past decades, providing the potential for an infectious disease to spread through the transportation network. By collecting information on the suspected place of infection, existing surveillance systems in industrialized countries may provide timely information for areas of the world without adequate surveillance currently in place. We present the results of a case study using reported cases of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (Sd1) in European travellers to detect "events" of Sd1, related to either epidemic cases or endemic cases in developing countries. METHODS: We identified papers from a Medline search for reported events of Sd1 from 1940 to 2002. We requested data on shigella infections reported to the responsible surveillance entities in 17 European countries. Reports of Sd1 from the published literature were then compared with Sd1 notified cases among European travellers from 1990 to 2002. RESULTS: Prior to a large epidemic in 1999-2000, no cases of Sd1 had been identified in West Africa. However, if travellers had been used as an early warning, Sd1 could have been identified in this region as earlier as 1992. CONCLUSION: This project demonstrates that tracking diseases in European travellers could be used to detect emerging disease in developing countries. This approach should be further tested with a view to the continuous improvement of national health surveillance systems and existing European networks, and may play a significant role in aiding the international public health community to improve infectious disease control.