• High incidence of subcutaneous emphysema in children in a Somali refugee cAMP during measles outbreak.

      Moons, Peter; Thallinger, Monica (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014-01)
      During an outbreak of measles in a refugee camp in Ethiopia, 9 patients (age range 4 months to 18 years) were diagnosed with subcutaneous emphysema. Incidence of this rare complication of measles in this refugee camp was higher than previously reported. We hypothesize that the high incidence is most likely related to poor physical state of the refugee population with high rates of malnutrition.
    • Measles epidemic in the urban community of Niamey: transmission patterns, vaccine efficacy and immunization strategies, Niger, 1990 to 1991.

      Malfait, P; Jataou, I M; Jollet, M C; Margot, A; De Benoist, A C; Moren, A; Epicentre, Paris, France. (1994-01)
      From October 1, 1990, until April 28, 1991, 13,578 cases of measles were reported in the urban community of Niamey, Niger. Vaccine coverages (one dose of Schwarz vaccine given after 9 months) in urban community of Niamey were, respectively, 63% at the age of 12 months and 73% at 24 months before the epidemic. Incidence rates were the highest among children ages 6 to 8 months and 9 to 11 months and 22% of the cases were less than 1 year old. Vaccine efficacy estimates ranged from 86 to 94% according to age groups and the method used (screening method, case control study, retrospective cohort study). The risk of transmission of illness increased with the intensity of contact with a case. Contact with a health facility 7 to 22 days before onset of rash was not a risk factor. Seasonal migrants in Niamey were more likely to develop measles. Recommendations included implementation of an early two dose schedule of measles immunization during the outbreak, vaccination offered at each contact with a health facility, radio and television advertising for measles immunization and distribution of vitamin A to all measles cases.
    • Measles vaccine effectiveness in standard and early immunization strategies, Niger, 1995.

      Kaninda, A V; Legros, D; Jataou, I M; Malfait, P; Maisonneuve, M; Paquet, C; Moren, A; Epicentre, Paris, France. epimail@epicentre.msf.org (1998-11)
      BACKGROUND: An Expanded Programme on Immunization was started in late 1987 in Niger, including vaccination against measles with one dose of standard titer Schwarz vaccine given to infants after 9 months of age. During epidemics an early two-dose strategy was implemented (one dose between 6 and 8 months and one dose after 9 months). From January 1, 1995, until May 7, 1995, 13 892 measles cases were reported in Niamey, Niger. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a crowded area of Niamey at the end of the outbreak to assess the effectiveness of measles vaccine in standard (after 9 months) and early (before 9 months) immunization strategies under field conditions. RESULTS: Highest measles incidence rates were observed among children <1 year of age. Vaccine effectiveness estimates increased with age at vaccination from 78% with a single dose administered at 6 months of age to 95% at 9 months. Vaccine effectiveness with the early two dose strategy was 93%. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with a single dose of standard titer Schwarz vaccine before 9 months of age provided higher clinical protection than expected from seropositivity studies. The early two dose strategy is justified in contexts where measles incidence is high before 9 months of age. Our results raise the issue of lowering the recommended age for measles vaccination in developing countries.