• Dengue in Western Uganda: a prospective cohort of children presenting with undifferentiated febrile illness

      Boyce, RM; Collins, M; Muhindo, R; Nakakande, R; Ciccone, EJ; Grounds, S; Espinoza, D; Zhu, Y; Matte, M; Ntaro, M; et al. (BMC, 2020-11-11)
      Background The spatial distribution and burden of dengue in sub-Saharan Africa remains highly uncertain, despite high levels of ecological suitability. The goal of this study was to describe the epidemiology of dengue among a cohort of febrile children presenting to outpatient facilities located in areas of western Uganda with differing levels of urbanicity and malaria transmission intensity. Methods Eligible children were first screened for malaria using rapid diagnostic tests. Children with a negative malaria result were tested for dengue using a combination NS1/IgM/IgG rapid test (SD Bioline Dengue Duo). Confirmatory testing by RT-PCR was performed in a subset of participants. Antigen-capture ELISA was performed to estimate seroprevalence. Results Only 6 of 1416 (0.42%) children had a positive dengue rapid test, while none of the RT-PCR results were positive. ELISA testing demonstrated reactive IgG antibodies in 28 (2.2%) participants with the highest prevalence seen at the urban site in Mbarara (19 of 392, 4.9%, p < 0.001). Conclusions Overall, these findings suggest that dengue, while present, is an uncommon cause of non-malarial, pediatric febrile illness in western Uganda. Further investigation into the eocological factors that sustain low-level transmission in urban settings are urgently needed to reduce the risk of epidemics.
    • Hepatitis C viraemic and seroprevalence and risk factors for positivity in Northwest Cambodia: a household cross-sectional serosurvey.

      Lynch, E; Falq, G; Sun, C; Bunchhoeung, PDT; Huerga, H; Loarec, A; Dousset, JP; Marquardt, T; Le Paih, M; Maman, D (BMC, 2021-02-26)
      Background: Despite a dramatic reduction in HCV drug costs and simplified models of care, many countries lack important information on prevalence and risk factors to structure effective HCV services. Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-stage cluster survey of HCV seroprevalence in adults 18 years and above was conducted, with an oversampling of those 45 years and above. One hundred forty-seven clusters of 25 households were randomly selected in two sets (set 1=24 clusters ≥18; set 2=123 clusters, ≥45). A multi-variable analysis assessed risk factors for sero-positivity among participants ≥45. The study occurred in rural Moung Ruessei Health Operational District, Battambang Province, Western Cambodia. Results: A total of 5098 individuals and 3616 households participated in the survey. The overall seroprevalence was 2.6% (CI95% 2.3-3.0) for those ≥18 years, 5.1% (CI95% 4.6-5.7) for adults ≥ 45 years, and 0.6% (CI95% 0.3-0.9) for adults 18-44. Viraemic prevalence was 1.9% (CI95% 1.6-2.1), 3.6% (CI95% 3.2-4.0), and 0.5% (CI95% 0.2-0.8), respectively. Men had higher prevalence than women: ≥18 years male seroprevalence was 3.0 (CI95% 2.5-3.5) versus 2.3 (CI95% 1.9-2.7) for women. Knowledge of HCV was poor: 64.7% of all respondents and 57.0% of seropositive participants reported never having heard of HCV. Risk factor characteristics for the population ≥45 years included: advancing age (p< 0.001), low education (higher than secondary school OR 0.7 [95% CI 0.6-0.8]), any dental or gum treatment (OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.3-1.8]), historical routine medical care (medical injection after 1990 OR 0.7 [95% CI 0.6-0.9]; surgery after 1990 OR 0.7 [95% CI0.5-0.9]), and historical blood donation or transfusion (blood donation after 1980 OR 0.4 [95% CI 0.2-0.8]); blood transfusion after 1990 OR 0.7 [95% CI 0.4-1.1]). Conclusions: This study provides the first large-scale general adult population prevalence data on HCV infection in Cambodia. The results confirm the link between high prevalence and age ≥45 years, lower socio-economic status and past routine medical interventions (particularly those received before 1990 and 1980). This survey suggests high HCV prevalence in certain populations in Cambodia and can be used to guide national and local HCV policy discussion.