• Notes from the Field: Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae Associated with Attending a Funeral - Chegutu District, Zimbabwe, 2018.

      McAteer, JB; Danda, S; Nhende, T; Manamike, P; Parayiwa, T; Tarupihwa, A; Tapfumanei, O; Manangazira, P; Mhlanga, G; Garone, DB; et al. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018-05-18)
    • Operational Research during the Ebola Emergency

      Fitzpatrick, G; Decroo, T; Draguez, B; Crestani, R; Ronsse, A; Van den Bergh, R; Van Herp, M (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017-07)
      Operational research aims to identify interventions, strategies, or tools that can enhance the quality, effectiveness, or coverage of programs where the research is taking place. Médecins Sans Frontières admitted ≈5,200 patients with confirmed Ebola virus disease during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and from the beginning nested operational research within its emergency response. This research covered critical areas, such as understanding how the virus spreads, clinical trials, community perceptions, challenges within Ebola treatment centers, and negative effects on non-Ebola healthcare. Importantly, operational research questions were decided to a large extent by returning volunteers who had first-hand knowledge of the immediate issues facing teams in the field. Such a method is appropriate for an emergency medical organization. Many challenges were also identified while carrying out operational research across 3 different countries, including the basic need for collecting data in standardized format to enable comparison of findings among treatment centers.
    • Rotavirus Surveillance in Urban and Rural Areas of Niger, April 2010–March 2012

      Page, Anne-Laure; Jusot, Viviane; Mamaty, Abdoul-Aziz; Adamou, Lagare; Kaplon, Jérôme; Pothier, Pierre; Djibo, Ali; Manzo, Mahamane L.; Toure, Brahima; Langendorf, Céline; et al. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014-03)
      Knowledge of rotavirus epidemiology is necessary to make informed decisions about vaccine introduction and to evaluate vaccine impact. During April 2010–March 2012, rotavirus surveillance was conducted among 9,745 children <5 years of age in 14 hospitals/health centers in Niger, where rotavirus vaccine has not been introduced. Study participants had acute watery diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration, and 20% of the children were enrolled in a nutrition program. Of the 9,745 children, 30.6% were rotavirus positive. Genotyping of a subset of positive samples showed a variety of genotypes during the first year, although G2P[4] predominated. G12 genotypes, including G12P[8], which has emerged as a predominant strain in western Africa, represented >80% of isolates during the second year. Hospitalization and death rates and severe dehydration among rotavirus case-patients did not differ during the 2 years. The emergence of G12P[8] warrants close attention to the characteristics of associated epidemics and possible prevention measures.
    • Symptom-Based Ebola Risk Score for Ebola Virus Disease, Conakry, Guinea

      Ingelbeen, B; De Weggheleire, A; Van Herp, M; van Griensven, J (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018-06)