• Cost and cost-effectiveness of a simplified treatment model with direct-acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C in Cambodia

      Walker, JG; Mafirakureva, N; Iwamoto, M; Campbell, L; Kim, CS; Hastings, RA; Doussett, JP; Le Paih, M; Balkan, S; Marquardt, T; et al. (Wiley, 2020-05-31)
      Background & aims: In 2016, Médecins Sans Frontières established the first general population Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening and treatment site in Cambodia, offering free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment. This study analysed the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. Methods: Costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and cost-effectiveness of the intervention were projected with a Markov model over a lifetime horizon, discounted at 3%/year. Patient-level resource-use and outcome data, treatment costs, costs of HCV-related healthcare and EQ-5D-5L health states were collected from an observational cohort study evaluating the effectiveness of DAA treatment under full and simplified models of care compared to no treatment; other model parameters were derived from literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost/QALY gained) were compared to an opportunity cost-based willingness-to-pay threshold for Cambodia ($248/QALY). Results: The total cost of testing and treatment per patient for the full model of care was $925(IQR $668-1631), reducing to $376(IQR $344-422) for the simplified model of care. EQ-5D-5L values varied by fibrosis stage: decompensated cirrhosis had the lowest value, values increased during and following treatment. The simplified model of care was cost saving compared to no treatment, while the full model of care, although cost-effective compared to no treatment ($187/QALY), cost an additional $14 485/QALY compared to the simplified model, above the willingness-to-pay threshold for Cambodia. This result is robust to variation in parameters. Conclusions: The simplified model of care was cost saving compared to no treatment, emphasizing the importance of simplifying pathways of care for improving access to HCV treatment in low-resource settings. Keywords: Markov process; cost-effectiveness; direct-acting antiviral treatment; healthcare costs; hepatitis C; low-income population; treatment costs.
    • Cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment using direct-acting antivirals for chronic Hepatitis C virus in a primary care setting in Karachi, Pakistan

      Mafirakureva, N; Lim, AG; Khalid, GG; Aslam, K; Campbell, L; Zahid, H; Van den Bergh, R; Falq, G; Fortas, C; Wailly, Y; et al. (Wiley, 2020-10-14)
      abilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA). The ICER for implementing testing and treatment compared to no programme was US$450/DALY averted, with 100% of PSA runs falling below the per capita Gross Domestic Product threshold for cost-effective interventions for Pakistan (US$1,422). The ICER increased to US$532/DALY averted assuming national HCV seroprevalence (5.5% versus 33% observed in the intervention). If the cost of liver disease care was included (adapted from resource use data from Cambodia which has similar GDP to Pakistan), the ICER dropped to US$148/DALY, while it became cost-saving if a recently negotiated reduced drug cost of $75/treatment course was assumed (versus $282 in base-case) in addition to cost of liver disease care. In conclusion, screening and DAA treatment for HCV infection are expected to be highly cost-effective in Pakistan, supporting the expansion of similar screening and treatment programmes across Pakistan.
    • High sustained viral response rate in patients with hepatitis C using generic sofosbuvir and daclatasvir in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

      Zhang, M; O'Keefe, D; Iwamoto, M; Sann, K; Kien, A; Hang, V; Brucker, C; Jolivet, P; Ly, S; Chhit, D; et al. (Wiley, 2020-05-02)
      Safe and efficacious pan-genotypic direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens, such as sofosbuvir and daclatasvir (SOF+DCV)facilitate simplified models of care for hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, in Cambodia access to HCV testing and treatment has typically been low. In response, Médecins Sans Frontières(MSF) implemented a HCV testing and treatment pilot project in Phnom Penh, Cambodia in 2016. This project provides the first real-world evidence of SOF+DCV effectiveness across a large patient cohort using a simplified care model in Cambodia.Patients treated with SOF+DCV from September 2016 to June 2019 were included in the analysis. Medical standard operational procedures (SOPs) were simplified significantly across the study period. Treatment effectiveness was assessed by sustained viral response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) according to a modified intention to treat methodology. Treatment safety was assessed by clinical outcome and occurrence of serious and non-serious adverse events (S/AE). Of 9158 patients, median age was 57 years and 39.6% were male. At baseline assessment, 27.2% of patients had compensated cirrhosis and 2.9% had decompensated cirrhosis. Genotype 6 was predominant (53.0%). Among patients analysed according to modified intention to treat (n=8525), treatment effectiveness was high, with 97.2% of patients achieving SVR12. Occurrence of SAE was low (0.7%). Treatment effectiveness and safety was not affected by the iterative simplification to treatment modality. In conclusion, in this large treatment cohort in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, the SOF+DCV regimen showed high rates of treatment effectiveness and safety across patient sub-groups and during progressive simplification.
    • Hypertension and treatment outcomes in Palestine refugees in United Nations Relief and Works Agency primary health care clinics in Jordan.

      Khader, A; Farajallah, L; Shahin, Y; Hababeh, M; Abu-Zayed, I; Zachariah, R; Kochi, A; Kapur, A; Harries, A D; Shaikh, I; et al. (Wiley, 2014-07-12)
      In six United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) primary health care clinics in Jordan serving Palestine refugees diagnosed with hypertension, to determine the number, characteristics, programme outcomes and measures of disease control for those registered up to 30 June, 2013, and in those who attended clinic in the second quarter of 2013, the prevalence of disease-related complications between those with hypertension only and hypertension combined with diabetes mellitus.
    • Noma surgery

      Shaye, DA; Winters, R; Rabbels, J; Adentunji, AS; Magee, A; Vo, D (Wiley, 2018-09-08)
      Noma is a devastating and destructive disease of the face for which there is a dearth of information regarding surgical options. Herein, we describe the facial deformities and patient characteristics in a patient population affected by noma and the surgical approaches used in treatment.